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Tradition, ¥ amity, Property 




— Plinio Correa de Oliveira 

Revolution and Counter-Revolution 

Plinio Correa de Oliveira 

© 2002 by the American TFP 
P.O. Box 341 • Hanover PA 17331 
Phone: (717) 225-7147 • Fax: (717) 225-7382 

Originally published as Kevolucao e Contra-Kevolucao, in Catolicismo , April 
1959 (Parts I and II) and January 1977 (Part III) by Plinio Correa de 

First Digital Edition 

Copyright © 2002 The American Society for the Defense of 
Tradition, Family and Property (TFP). All rights reserved. 

First printed English edition 1974. Second printed English edition 
1980. Third printed English Edition 1993. 

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval 
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic or 
mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information 
storage and retrieval system, without prior written permission from 
The American Society for the Defense of Tradition, Family and 
Property (TFP). 

The American Society of the Defense of Tradition, Family and 
Property is a registered name of The Foundation for a Christian 
Civilization, Inc. 

The American Society for the Defense of Tradition, Family and 
Property (TFP) 

P.O. Box 341 
Hanover, PA 17331 

ISBN 1-877905-27-5 

Library of Congress Catalogue Card No. 93-073496 

Table of Contents 



Part I: The Revolution 

Chapter 1: The Crisis of Contemporary Man 
Chapter 2: The Crisis of Western and Christian Man 

Chapter 3: Characteristics of this Crisis 

1. It is Universal 

2. It is One 

3. It is Total 

4. It is Dominant 

5. It is Processive 

A. The Decay of the Middle Ages 

B. The Pseudo-Reformation and the Renaissance 

C. The French Revolution 

D. Communism 

E. Monarchy. Republic, and Religion 

F. Revolution. Counter-Revolution, and Dictatorship 

Chapter 4: The Metamorphoses of the Revolutionary Process 

Q iAPTHR 5: Tiir.Ti imu Depths of the >n In ti ie Tendencies, mthe 

Ideas, and in the Facts 

1. The Revolution in the Tendencies 

2. The Revolution in the Ideas 

3. The Revolution in the Facts 

4. Observations 

A. The Depths of the Revolution are not Identical to Chronological Stages 

B. The Difference of the Three Depths of the Revolution 

C. The Revolutionary Process is no Irrepressible 

Chapter 6: The March of the Revolution 

1. The Driving Force of the Revolution 

A, The Revolution and the Disordered Tendencies 

B, The Paroxysms of the Revolution are fully present in its seeds 

C, The Revolution aggravates its own causes 

2. The Apparent Intervals of the Revolution 

3. The March from Refinement to Refinement 

4. The Harmonic Speeds of the Revolution 

A. The Rapid March 

B. The Slow March 

C. How these Speeds Harmonize 

5. Objections Refuted 

A. Slow-speed Revolutionaries and “Semi-counterrevolutionaries” 

B. Protestant Monarchies and Catholic Republics 

C. Protestant Austerity 

D. The Single Front of the Revolution 

6. The Agents of the Revolution: Freemasonry and other Secret Forces 

Chapter 7: The Essence of the Revolution 

1. The Revolution Par Excellence 

A. Meaning of the Word “Revolution” 

B. Bloody and Unbloody Revolution 

C. The Amplitude of the Revolution 

D. The Revolution Par Excellence 

E. The Destruction of the Order Par Excellence 

2. Revolution and Legitimacy 

A. Legitimacy Par Excellence 

B. Catholic Culture and Civilization 

C. The Sacral Character of Catholic Civilization 

D. Culture and Civilization Par Excellence 

E. Illegitimacy Par Excellence 

3. Pride And Sensuality and the Metaphysical Values of the Revolution 

A. Pride and Egalitarianism 

B. Sensuality and Liberalism 

Chapter 8: The Intet.t .thence, the Will, and the Sensibility in the 

Determination of human acts 

1. Fallen Nature, (Trace, and Free Will 

2. The Germ of the Revolution 

3. Revolution and Bad Faith 

Chapter 9: The “Semi-Counterrevolutionary” is also a son of the Revolution 


1. Culture 

2. Arts 

3. Ambiences 

4. The historical role of the arts and ambiences in the Revolutionary Process 

Ci AFTER 11: The Rey( >u"n< >x < >\ Six and Redempto>n, and tileRearbj tk inary 


1. The Revolution Denies Sin and the redemption 

2. Historical Exemplification: The Denial of Sin in Liberalism and Socialism 

A. The Immaculate Conception of the Individual 

B. The Immaculate Conception of the Masses and the State 

3. Redemption by Science and Technology: the Revolutionary Utopia 

Chapter 12: The Pacifist and Antimilitarist Character of the Revolution 

1. Science will bring an end to war, the military, and police 

2. The Doctrinal Incompatibility Between The Revolution And The Uniform 

3. The temperament of the revolution is contrary to the military life 

Part II: The Counter-Revolution 

Chapter 1: The Counter-Revolution Is A Reaction 

1. The Counter-Revolution: A Specific and direct fight against the Revolution 

2. The Nobility of this Reaction 

3. A Reaction turned against present-day adversaries 

4. The modernity and integrity of the Counter-Revolution 

Chapter 2: Reaction And Historical Immobility 

1. What is to be Restored 

2. What is to be Innovated 

Chapter 3: The Counter-Revolution And The Craving After Novelties 

1. The Counter-Revolution is Traditionalist 

A. Reason 

B. The Smoking Wick 

C. False Traditionalism 

2. The Counter-Revolution is Conservative 

3. The Counter-Revolution is an essential condition for authentic progress 

Chapter 4: What is a Counter-Revolutionary? 

1. In Actuality 

2. In Potentiality 

Chapter 5: The Counter-Revolution’s Tactics 

1. In Relation to the Actual Counter-Revolutionary 

A. An Individual Action 

B. Combined Action 

2. In Relation to the Potential Counter-Revolutionary 

3. In Relation to the Revolutionary 

A. The Counter-Revolutionary Initiative 

B. The Revolutionary Counteroffensive 

4. Elites and the Masses in the Counter-Revolutionary Tactics 

Chapter 6: The Counter-Revolution’s Means of Action 

1. A Preference for Great Means of Action 

2. The Use of Modest Means: their Efficacy 

Chapter 7: Obstacles to the Counter-Revolution 

1. Pitfalls to be avoided among Counter-Revolutionaries 

2. Slogans of the Revolution 

A. “The Counter-Revolution is out of date” 

B. “The Counter-Revolution is negativistic” 

C. “The Counter-Revolutionary is argumentative” 

3. Wrong attitudes in face of the Revolution’s slogans 

A. Ignoring Revolutionary Slogans 

B. Eliminating the polemical aspects of Counter-Revolutionary action 

Cl 1 AFTER 8: Ti Ml PR< fflgSggE Cl IARACTEK OFTH|jQ )l XTER-illAA ijJ.'TK )\, AM) THE 

Counter-Revolutionary “Shock” 

1. There is a Counter-Revolutionary Process 

2. Typical aspects of the Revolutionary Process 

A. In the Rapid March 

B. In the Slow March 

3. How to destroy the Revolutionary Process 

A. The Many Ways of the Holy Ghost 

B. Nothing should be hidden 

C. The shock of the Great Conversions 

D. The Likelihood of this Shock in our days 

E. Showing the whole face of the Revolution 

F. Pointing out the Metaphysical aspects of the Counter-Revolution 

G. The two stages of the Counter-Revolution 

Chapter 9: The Driving Force of the Counter-Revolution 

1. Virtue and Counter-Revolution 

2. Supernatural life and Counter-Revolution 

3. The Invincibility of the Counter-Revolution 


1. The Counter-Revolution should revive the notion of good and evil 

2. How to revive the notion of good and evil 

Chapter 11: The Counter-Revolution and Temporal Society 

1. The Counter-Revolution and Social Organizations 

A. Works of Charity. Social Service. Associations of Employers. Workers, and so 


B. The Struggle against Communism 

2. Christendom and the Universal Republic 

3. The Counter-Revolution and Nationalism 

4. The Counter-Revolution and Militarism 

Chapter 12: The Church and the Counter-Revolution 

1. The Church is much higher and far broader than the Revolution and the Counter- 


2. The Church has the greatest interest in crushing the Revolution 

3. The Church is a fundamentally Counter-Revolutionary Force 

4. The Church is the Greatest Counter-Revolutionary Force 

5. The Church is the soul of the Counter-Revolution 

6. The Ideal of the Counter-Revolution is to exalt the Church 

7. In a way, the purview of the Counter-Revolution is broader than the Ecclesiastical 


8. Whether every Catholic should be Counter-Revolutionary 

A. The Implicit Counter-Revolutionary 

B. The Modernity of a Counter-Revolutionary Explicitness 

C. The Explicit Counter-Revolutionary 

D. Counter-Revolutionary Action that does not constitute an apostolate 

9. Catholic Action and Counter-Revolution 

10. The Counter-Revolution and non-Catholics 

Part III: Revolution and Counter-Revolution Twenty Years After 

Chapter 1: The Revolution: A Process in Continual Transformation 

1. Revolution and Counter-Revolution and the TFPs: Twenty years of action and 


2. In a world in continuous and rapid transformation, is Revolution and Counter- 

Revolution still current? The answer is affirmative 


1. The Apogee of the Third Revolution 

A. On the Road to Its Apogee, the Third Revolution studiously avoided total and 

useless adventures 

B, Adventure in this revolution’s next stages? 

2. Unanticipated obstacles to the Third Revolution’s use of classic methods 

A. The Decline of Persuasive Power 

B. The Decline in the capacity of leadership 

C. Objection: The Communist Success in Italy and France 

3. Metamorphosed hatred and violence generate total revolutionary psychological 


A. The Two Great Goals of Revolutionary Psychological Warfare 

B, Total Revolutionary Psychological Warfare: a Result of the Third Revolution’s 

Apogee and current Problems 

4. The Third Revolution’s psychological offensive within the Church 

A. The Second Vatican Council 

B. The Church: Today’s Center of Conflict Between the Revolution and the 


C. Reactions based on Revolution and Counter-Revolution 

D. The Usefulness of the Action of the TFPs and like organizations inspired by 

Revolution and Counter-Revolution 

5. An Assessment of twenty-years of the Third Revolution according to the criteria of 

Revolution and Counter-Revolution 

Chapter 3: The Aborning Fourth Revolution 

1. The Fourth Revolution foretold by the authors of the Third Revolution 

2. The Fourth Revolution and Tribalism: an eventuality? 

A. The Fourth Revolution and the Preternatural 

B. Structuralism and Pre-tribal tendencies 

C. An Unpretentious Contribution 

D. The Opposition of the Banal 

E. Ecclesiastical Tribalism and Pentecostalism 

3. The Duty of the Counter-Revolutionaries in face of the aborning Fourth Revolution 




Since its first publication in the Brazilian cultural journal Catolicismo in 1959, 
Revolution and Counter-Revolution has gone through a number of editions in Portuguese, 
English, French, Italian, and Spanish. 

The present edition is the first digital edition to be published in the United States. 
It includes recent commentaries on Revolution and Counter-Revolution's third part, 
which was added by the author in 1976. 

Revolution and Counter-Revolution, the basic book and inspiration of the many 
autonomous Societies for the Defense of Tradition, Family and Property and like 
organizations, contains principles of wisdom that can efficaciously stop the disintegration 
of civilization in the world today. 

The author of this work is the world-famous Brazilian Catholic philosopher Prof. 
Plinio Correa de Oliveira. Over the years he has written numerous works that have 
received noteworthy ecclesiastical approbation. 

For example, in the late 40s, his Em Defesa da Acao Catolica, denouncing the 
danger presented by leftists encysted in the Catholic Action movement, prompted a letter 
of praise from Msgr. Montini, then substitute for the Vatican secretary of state, written on 
behalf of Pius XII. 

In another work, The Church and the Communist State: The Impossible 
Coexistence (1963), the author proved that a Catholic could not view the establishment of 
a communist regime in his country as morally acceptable. The Vatican's Sacred 
Congregation of Seminaries and Universities called this work “a most faithful echo of all 
the Documents of the supreme Magisterium of the Church, including the luminous 
encyclicals Mater et Magistra of John XXIII and Ecclesiam Suam of Paul VI.” 

In 1992, he wrote Nobility and Analogous Traditional Elites in the Allocutions of 
Pius XII contrasting two models of society. The first model is Christian, founded on the 
idea that God wills proportional and hannonic inequalities among the social classes, all of 
whose members are entitled to at least sufficient living conditions. The second model is 
based on the erroneous idea that all inequality is unjust. The book has been acclaimed in 
eloquent letters by Silvio Cardinal Oddi, Mario Luigi Cardinal Ciappi, Alfons M. 
Cardinal Stickler, theologian Fr. Raimondo Spiazzi, Thomist Fr. Victorino Rodriguez y 
Rodriguez, and canonist Fr. Anastasio Gutierrez. 

Yet, the most significant of Professor Correa de Oliveira's works is Revolution 
and Counter-Revolution. Its significance was quickly recognized. Eugene Cardinal 
Tisserant wrote: “The theme of this study is of the highest importance for the time in 
which we live.... The analysis made by Professor Correa de Oliveira is clear, precise and 
accurate. ... It will be of interest to a considerable number of our fellow citizens. I 
congratulate the author of this magnificent work.” Thomas Cardinal Tien, of China, 
stated: “Those of us who personally suffer from the effects of communism are well able 
to calculate the accuracy and urgent necessity of such a study.” 

All the editions of Revolution and Counter-Revolution have concluded with these 



“We have not the slightest doubt in our heart about any of the theses that 
constitute this work. Nevertheless, we subject them all unrestrictedly to the 
judgment of the Vicar of Christ and are disposed to renounce immediately any 
one of them if it depart even slightly from the teaching of the Holy Church, our 
Mother, the Ark of Salvation, and the Gate of Heaven.” 

Over fifty years have passed since this statement was first published. In the 
meantime, Revolution and Counter-Revolution has been spread throughout the world 
without any of its theses being challenged as contrary to the Church's Magisterium. This 
fact corroborates the earlier approbations and testifies to the integrity of this enduring 

To this must be added another fact of enonnous gravity. In the third part of the 
present work, the author states that the main battleground of the struggle between 
anti-order (the Revolution) and order (the Counter-Revolution) is no longer civil society 
but the Holy Church herself. 

Such a terrible state of affairs is of first concern to Catholics. But it is also of 
concern to all men of good will, for without the influence of the Church, temporal society 
will never rise from the prostration to which it has been reduced by the same enemy: the 

People seeking the most effective way to combat this enemy will welcome a book 
that provides the principles needed for the pursuit of this struggle. 

The American Society for the Defense of Tradition, Family and Property (TFP) 


Today, Catolicismo publishes its hundredth issue. 1 To mark the event it wished to give 
this issue a special note that might deepen the already profound communication of soul 
between it and its readers. 

For this, nothing seemed more appropriate than the publication of an essay on the 
subject of Revolution and Counter-Revolution. 

The selection of this subject is easy to explain. Catolicismo is a combative 
journal. As such, it must be judged principally in relation to the end toward which its 
combat strives. Now, whom, precisely, does it wish to combat? A reading of its pages 
may provide an insufficiently defined impression in this regard. One frequently finds 
therein refutations of communism, socialism, totalitarianism, liberalism, liturgicism, 
“Maritainism,” and various other “isms.” Nevertheless, one would not say that any one of 
these has been emphasized over the others to such an extent that Catolicismo could be 
defined by it alone. For example, it would be an exaggeration to affirm that Catolicismo 
is a specifically anti-Protestant or anti-socialist paper. One would say, then, that our 
journal has a plurality of ends. However, one perceives that, in the perspective in which it 
places itself, ah of these aims have, as it were, a common denominator, and this is the 
objective our paper always has before it. 

What is this common denominator? A doctrine? A force? A current of opinion? 
Clearly, an elucidation of this point would help explain the depths of the whole work of 
doctrinal formation that Catolicismo has been doing in the course of these one hundred 

* * * 

However, the benefit that can be derived from the study of Revolution and 
Counter-Revolution goes far beyond this limited objective. 

To demonstrate this, we need but glance at the religious scene of our country. 
Statistically speaking, the situation of Catholics is excellent: According to the latest 
official data, we comprise 94 percent of the population. If ah of us were the Catholics we 
should be, Brazil would now be one of the most admirable Catholic powers to have arisen 
in the course of the twenty centuries of the life of the Church. 

Why, then, are we so far from this ideal? Can anyone truthfully say that the main 
cause of our present situation is spiritualism, Protestantism, atheism, or communism? No! 
It is something else, impalpable and subtle, and as penetrating as a powerful and fearful 
radiation. Ah feel its effects, but few know its name or nature. 

As we write these words, our thoughts transcend the frontiers of Brazil, to our 
dear sister nations of Hispanic America, and thence to ah Catholic nations. In each, this 
same evil exerts its undefined but overwhelming sway, producing symptoms of tragic 
grandeur. Consider this example among others. In a letter written in 1956 regarding the 
National Day of Thanksgiving, Msgr. Angelo Deh’Acqua, substitute for the Vatican 
secretary of state, said to Carlos Carmelo Cardinal de Vasconcellos Motta of Sao Paulo: 

1 This introduction was first published in the April 1959 issue of the Brazilian journal Catolicismo. 


“Because of the religious agnosticism of the states,” there has been “a decline or almost 
loss of the sense of the Church in modern society.” Now what enemy struck this terrible 
blow against the Bride of Christ? What is the common cause of this and so many other 
concomitant and like evils? What shall we call it? What are the means by which it acts? 
What is the secret of its victory? How can we combat it successfully? 

Obviously, it would be difficult to find a more timely subject. 

* H= 

This terrible enemy has a name: It is called the Revolution. 

Its profound cause is an explosion of pride and sensuality that has inspired, not 
one system, but, rather, a whole chain of ideological systems. Their wide acceptance gave 
rise to the three great revolutions in the history of the West: the Pseudo-Reformation, the 
French Revolution, and Communism." 

Pride leads to hatred of all superiority and, thus, to the affirmation that inequality 
is an evil in itself at all levels, principally at the metaphysical and religious ones. This is 
the egalitarian aspect of the Revolution. 

Sensuality, per se, tends to sweep aside all barriers. It does not accept restraints 
and leads to revolt against all authority and law, divine or human, ecclesiastical or civil. 
This is the liberal aspect of the Revolution. 

Both aspects, which in the final analysis have a metaphysical character, seem 
contradictory on many occasions. But they are reconciled in the Marxist utopia of an 
anarchic paradise where a highly evolved mankind, “emancipated” 14 from religion, would 
live in utmost order without political authority in total freedom. This, however, would not 
give rise to any inequality. 

The Pseudo-Reformation was a first revolution. It implanted, in varying degrees, 
the spirit of doubt, religious liberalism, and ecclesiastical egalitarianism in the different 
sects it produced. 

The French Revolution came next. It was the triumph of egalitarianism in two 
fields: the religious field in the form of atheism, speciously labeled as secularism; and the 
political field through the false maxim that all inequality is an injustice, all authority a 
danger, and freedom the supreme good. 

Communism is the transposition of these maxims to the socioeconomic field. 

These three revolutions are episodes of one single Revolution, within which 
socialism, liturgicism, the politique de la main tendue (policy of the extended hand), and 
the like are only transitional stages or attenuated manifestations. 

* * * 

Naturally, a process so profound, vast, and prolonged cannot develop without 
encompassing every domain of human activity, such as culture, art, laws, customs, and 

A detailed study of this process in all its areas of development is much beyond the 
scope of this essay. 

2 Cf. Leo XIII, apostolic letter Parvenu d la vingt-cinquieme amnee, March 19, 1902, in Fr. John J. Wynne, 
S.J., The Great Encyclical Letters of Pope Leo XIII (New York: Benziger Bros., 1903) pp.559-560. 

- 10- 

Here - limiting ourselves to one vein of this vast matter - we attempt to sketch 
summarily the outlines of the immense avalanche that is the Revolution, to give it an 
adequate name, and to indicate very succinctly its profound causes, the agents promoting 
it, the essential elements of its doctrine, the respective importance of the various fields in 
which it acts, the vigor of its dynamism, and the mechanism of its expansion. In a similar 
way, we then treat analogous points pertaining to the Counter-Revolution, and study 
some of the conditions for its victory. 

Even so, in each of these themes, we had to restrict ourselves to explaining what 
in our view are presently the most useful elements for enlightening our readers and 
assisting them in the fight against the Revolution. We had to leave out many points of 
capital importance but of less pressing urgency. 

This work, as we have said, is a simple ensemble of theses by which one may 
better know the spirit and program of Catolicismo. It would go beyond its natural 
proportions if it included a complete demonstration of each affirmation. We have limited 
ourselves to developing the minimum argumentation necessary for showing the 
relationship between the various theses and giving a panoramic view of a whole side of 
our doctrinal positions. 

* * * 

This essay may serve as a survey. What exactly do the readers of Catolicismo in 
Brazil and elsewhere (who are certainly among those most opposed to the Revolution) 
think about the Revolution and the Counter-Revolution? Although our propositions 
encompass only part of the subject, we hope they will lead each of our readers to ask 
himself this question and to send us his answer, which we would welcome with great 

- 11 - 

The Revolution 

- 12- 


The Crisis of Contemporary Man 

The many crises shaking the world today - those of the State, family, economy, 
culture, and so on - are but multiple aspects of a single fundamental crisis whose field of 
action is man himself. In other words, these crises have their root in the most profound 
problems of the soul, from whence they spread to the whole personality of present-day 
man and all his activities. 

- 13 - 


The Crisis of Western and Christian 

Above all, this is a crisis of Western and Christian man, that is, Europeans and 
their descendants, Canadians, Americans, Latin Americans, and Australians. We will 
study it especially as such. It also affects other peoples to the degree that Western 
influence has reached and taken root among them. In their case, the crisis is interwoven 
with problems peculiar to their respective cultures and civilizations and to the clash of 
these with the positive or negative elements of Western culture and civilization. 

- 14- 


Characteristics of This Crisis 

However profound the factors that diversify this crisis from country to country, it 
always has five major characteristics. 


This crisis is universal. There is no people that is not affected by it to a greater or 
lesser degree. 


This crisis is one. It is not a range of crises developing side by side, independently 
in each country, interrelated because of certain analogies of varying relevance. 

When a fire breaks out in a forest, one cannot regard it as a thousand autonomous 
and parallel fires of a thousand trees in close proximity. The unity of the phenomenon of 
combustion acts on the living unity that is the forest. Moreover, the great force of 
expansion of the flames results from the heat in which the innumerable flames of the 
different trees intenningle and multiply. Indeed, everything helps to make the forest fire a 
single fact, totally encompassing the thousand partial fires, however different from one 
another in their accidents. 

Western Christendom constituted a single whole that transcended the several 
Christian countries without absorbing them. A crisis occurred within this living unity, 
eventually affecting the whole through the combined and even fused heat of the ever 
more numerous local crises that across the centuries have never ceased to intertwine and 
augment one another. Consequently, Christendom, as a family of officially Catholic 
states, has long ceased to exist. The Western and Christian peoples are mere remnants of 
it. And now they are all agonizing under the action of this same evil. 


In any given country, this crisis develops in such a profound level of problems 
that it spreads or unfolds, by the very order of things, in all powers of the soul, all fields 
of culture, and, in the end, all realms of human action. 


Considered superficially, the events of our days seem a chaotic and inextricable 
tangle. From many points of view, they are indeed. 

However, one can discern profoundly consistent and vigorous resultants of this 
conjunction of so many disorderly forces when considering them from the standpoint of 
the great crisis we are analyzing. 

- 15 - 

Indeed, under the impulse of these forces in delirium, the Western nations are 
being gradually driven toward a state of affairs which is taking the same form in all of 
them and is diametrically opposed to Christian civilization. 

Thus, this crisis is like a queen whom all the forces of chaos serve as efficient and 
docile vassals. 


This crisis is not a spectacular, isolated episode. It constitutes, on the contrary, a 
critical process already five centuries old. It is a long chain of causes and effects that, 
having originated at a certain moment with great intensity in the deepest recesses of the 
soul and the culture of Western man, has been producing successive convulsions since 
the fifteenth century. The words of Pius XII about a subtle and mysterious enemy of the 
Church can fittingly be applied to this process: 

It is to be found everywhere and among everyone; it can be both violent and astute. 

In these last centuries, it has attempted to disintegrate the intellectual, moral, and 
social unity in the mysterious organism of Christ. It has sought nature without grace, 
reason without faith, freedom without authority, and, at times, authority without 
freedom. It is an “enemy” that has become more and more apparent with an absence 
of scruples that still surprises: Christ yes; the Church no! Afterwards: God yes; Christ 
no! Finally the impious shout: God is dead and, even, God never existed! And behold 
now the attempt to build the structure of the world on foundations which we do not 
hesitate to indicate as the main causes of the threat that hangs over humanity: 
economy without God, law without God, politics without God. 3 

This process should not be viewed as an altogether fortuitous sequence of causes 
and effects that has taken place unexpectedly. Already at its inception, this crisis was 
strong enough to carry out all its potentialities. It is still strong enough to cause, by means 
of supreme upheavals, the ultimate destructions that are its logical outcome. 

Influenced and conditioned in different ways by all sorts of extrinsic factors 
(cultural, social, economic, ethnic, geographic, and others), it follows paths that are 
sinuous at times. It nonetheless never ceases to progress toward its tragic end. 

A. The Decay of the Middle Ages 

In the Introduction, we outlined the main features of this process. It would not be 
amiss to add some details. 

In the fourteenth century, a transfonnation of mentality began to take place in 
Christian Europe; in the course of the fifteenth century, it became ever more apparent. 
The thirst for earthly pleasures became a burning desire. Diversions became more and 
more frequent and sumptuous, increasingly engrossing men. In dress, manners, language, 
literature, and art, the growing yearning for a life filled with delights of fancy and the 
senses produced progressive manifestations of sensuality and softness. Little by little, the 
seriousness and austerity of fonner times lost their value. The whole trend was toward 
gaiety, affability, and festiveness. Hearts began to shy away from the love of sacrifice, 

3 Pius XII, allocution to the Union of Men of the Italian Catholic Action on October 12 1952, Discorsi e 
radiomessagi di Sua Santita Pio XII (Vatican: Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1953), vo. 14, p. 359. 

- 16 - 

from true devotion to the Cross, and from the aspiration to sanctity and eternal life. 
Chivalry, formerly one of the highest expressions of Christian austerity, became amorous 
and sentimental. The literature of love invaded all countries. Excesses of luxury and the 
consequent eagerness for gain spread throughout all social classes. 

Penetrating intellectual circles, this moral climate produced clear manifestations 
of pride, such as a taste for ostentatious and vain disputes, for inconsistent tricks of 
argument, and for fatuous exhibitions of learning. It praised old philosophical tendencies 
over which Scholasticism had triumphed. As the former zeal for the integrity of the Faith 
waned, these tendencies reappeared in new guises. The absolutism of legists, who 
adorned themselves with a conceited knowledge of Roman law, was favorably received 
by ambitious princes. And, all the while, in great and small alike, there was a fading of 
the will of yore to keep the royal power within its proper bounds as in the days of Saint 
Louis of France and Saint Ferdinand of Castile. 

B. The Pseudo-Reformation and the Renaissance 

This new state of soul contained a powerful although more or less 
unacknowledged desire for an order of things fundamentally different from that which 
had reached its heights in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 

An exaggerated and often delirious admiration for antiquity served as a means for 
the expression of this desire. In order to avoid direct confrontations with the old medieval 
tradition, humanism and the Renaissance frequently sought to relegate the Church, the 
supernatural, and the moral values of religion to a secondary plane. At the same time, the 
human type inspired by the pagan moralists was introduced by these movements as an 
ideal in Europe. This human type and the culture and civilization consistent with it were 
truly the precursors of the greedy, sensual, secularist, and pragmatic man of our days and 
of the materialistic culture and civilization into which we are sinking deeper and deeper. 
Efforts to effect a Christian Renaissance did not manage to crush in the germinal stage 
the factors that led to the gradual triumph of neopaganism. 

In some parts of Europe, this neopaganism developed without leading to formal 
apostasy. It found significant resistance. Even when it became established within souls, it 
did not dare ask them - at least in the beginning - to formally break with the Faith. 

However, in other countries, it openly attacked the Church. Pride and sensuality, 
whose satisfaction is the pleasure of pagan life, gave rise to Protestantism. 

Pride begot the spirit of doubt, free examination, and naturalistic interpretation of 
Scripture. It produced insurrection against ecclesiastical authority, expressed in all sects 
by the denial of the monarchical character of the Universal Church, that is to say, by a 
revolt against the Papacy. Some of the more radical sects also denied what could be 
called the higher aristocracy of the Church, namely, the bishops, her princes. Others even 
denied the hierarchical character of the priesthood itself by reducing it to a mere 
delegation of the people, lauded as the only true holder of priestly power. 

On the moral plane, the triumph of sensuality in Protestantism was affirmed by 
the suppression of ecclesiastical celibacy and by the introduction of divorce. 

- 17- 

C. The French Revolution 

The profound action of humanism and the Renaissance among Catholics spread 
unceasingly throughout France in a growing chain of consequences. 

Favored by the weakening of piety in the faithful caused by Jansenism and the 
other leavens sixteenth-century Protestantism had unfortunately left in the Most Christian 
Kingdom, this action gave rise in the eighteenth century to a nearly universal dissolution 
of customs, a frivolous and superficial way of considering things, and a deification of 
earthly life that paved the way for the gradual victory of irreligion. 

Doubts about the Church, the denial of the divinity of Christ, deism, and incipient 
atheism marked the stages of this apostasy. 

The French Revolution was the heir of Renaissance neopaganism and of 
Protestantism, with which it had a profound affinity. It carried out a work in every respect 
symmetrical to that of the Pseudo-Reformation. The Constitutional Church it attempted to 
set up before sinking into deism and atheism was an adaptation of the Church of France 
to the spirit of Protestantism. The political work of the French Revolution was but the 
transposition to the sphere of the State of the “reform” the more radical Protestant sects 
had adopted in the matter of ecclesiastical organization: 

- the revolt against the King corresponding to the revolt against the Pope; 

- the revolt of the common people against the nobles, to the revolt of the ecclesiastical 
“common people,” the faithful, against the “aristocracy” of the Church, the clergy; 

- the affirmation of popular sovereignty, to the government of certain sects by the faithful 
in varying degrees. 

D. Communism 

Some sects arising from Protestantism transposed their religious tendencies 
directly to the political field, thus preparing the way for the republican spirit. In the 
seventeenth century, Saint Francis de Sales warned the Duke of Savoy against these 
republican tendencies. 4 Other sects went even further, adopting principles that, if not 
communist in the full sense of the word today, were at least precommunist. 

Out of the French Revolution came the communist movement of Babeuf. Later, 
the nineteenth-century schools of utopian communism and the so-called scientific 
communism of Marx burst forth from the increasingly ardent spirit of the Revolution. 

And what could be more logical? The nonnal fruit of deism is atheism. 
Sensuality, revolting against the fragile obstacles of divorce, tends of itself toward free 
love. Pride, enemy of all superiority, finally had to attack the last inequality, that of 
wealth. Drunk with dreams of a one-world republic, of the suppression of all 
ecclesiastical or civil authority, of the abolition of any Church, and of the abolition of the 
State itself after a transitional dictatorship of the workers, the revolutionary process now 
brings us the twentieth-century neobarbarian, its most recent and extreme product. 

4 See Sainte-Beuve, Etudes de lundis - XVIIeme siecle - Saint Frangois de Sales (Paris: Librairie Gamier, 
1928), p. 364. 

- 18 - 

E. Monarchy, Republic, and Religion 

To avoid any misunderstanding, it is necessary to emphasize that this exposition 
does not contain the assertion that the republic is necessarily a revolutionary regime. 
When speaking of the various forms of government, Leo XIII made it quite clear that 
“each of them is good, as long as it moves honestly toward its end, namely, the common 
good, for which social authority is constituted,” 5 

We do label as revolutionary the hostility professed against monarchy and 
aristocracy on the principle that they arc essentially incompatible with human dignity and 
the normal order of things. This error was condemned by Saint Pius X in the apostolic 
letter Notre charge apostolique, of August 25, 1910. In this letter, the great and holy 
Pontiff censures the thesis of Le Sillon, that “only democracy will inaugurate the reign of 
perfect justice,” and he says: “Is this not an injury to the other forms of government, 
which are thus reduced to the category of impotent governments, acceptable only for lack 
of something better?” 6 

If one fails to consider this error, which is deeply rooted in the process under 
study, one cannot completely explain how it is that monarchy, classified by Pope Pius VI 
as the best form of govermnent in thesis (“praestantioris monorchici regiminis forma” 7 ), 
has been the object in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries of a hostile worldwide 
movement that has overthrown the most venerable thrones and dynasties. From our 
perspective, the mass production of republics all over the world is a typical fruit of the 
Revolution and a capital aspect of it. 

A person cannot be tenned a revolutionary for preferring, in view of concrete and 
local reasons, that his country be a democracy instead of an aristocracy or a monarchy, 
provided the rights of legitimate authority be respected. But, yes, he can be termed a 
revolutionary if, led by the Revolution's egalitarian spirit, he hates monarchy or 
aristocracy in principle and classifies them as essentially unjust or inhuman. 

From this antimonarchical and antiaristocratic hatred are born the demagogic 
democracies, which combat tradition, persecute the elites, degrade the general tone of 
life, and create an ambience of vulgarity that constitutes, as it were, the dominant note of 
the culture and civilization-supposing the concepts of civilization and culture can be 
realized in such conditions. 

How different from this revolutionary democracy is the democracy described by 
Pius XII: 

“History bears witness to the fact that, wherever true democracy reigns, the life of 
the people is as it were permeated with sound traditions, which it is illicit to destroy. The 
primary representatives of these traditions are first of all the leading classes, that is, the 
groups of men and women or the associations that set the tone, as we say, for the village 
or the city, for the region or the entire country. Whence the existence and influence, 
among all civilized peoples, of aristocratic institutions, aristocratic in the highest sense of 

5 Leo XIII, encyclical^!/ milieu des sollicitudes, February 16, 1892, Bonne Presse, Paris, vol. 3, p. 166. 

6 Saint Pius X, Notre charge apostolique, Acta Apostolicae Sedis, vol. 2, p. 618. 

7 Pius VI, allocution to the Consistory of June 17, 1793, Les Enseignements Pontificaux - La Paix 
Interieure de Nations, by the monks of Solesmes (Paris: Desclee &amp; Cie), p. 8. 

- 19 - 

the word, like certain academies of widespread and well-deserved fame. And the nobility 


is also in that number.” 

As can be seen, the spirit of revolutionary democracy is quite different from the 
spirit that must animate a democracy according to the doctrine of the Church. 

F. Revolution, Counter-Revolution, and Dictatorship 

These considerations on the position of the Revolution and of Catholic thought 
concerning forms of government may lead some readers to inquire whether dictatorship is 
a revolutionary or a counter-revolutionary factor. 

To provide a clear answer to this question — to which many confused and even 
tendentious replies have been given — it is necessary to make a distinction between 
certain elements indiscriminately li nk ed in the idea of dictatorship as public opinion 
conceives of it. Mistaking dictatorship in thesis for what it has been in practice in our 
century, the public sees dictatorship as a state of affairs in which a leader endowed with 
unlimited powers governs a country. For its good, say some. For its hann, say others. But 
in either case, such a state of affairs is still a dictatorship. 

Now, this concept involves two distinct elements: 

- the omnipotence of the State; 

- the concentration of state power in the hands of a single person. 

The public mind seems to focus on the second element. Nevertheless, the first is 
the basic element, at least if we see dictatorship as a state of affairs in which the public 
authority, having suspended the juridical order, disposes of all rights at its good pleasure. 
It is entirely evident that a dictatorship may be exercised by a king. (A royal dictatorship, 
that is, the suspension of the whole juridical order and the unrestricted exercise of public 
power by the king, is not to be confused with the Ancien Regime, in which these 
guarantees existed to a considerable degree, nor, much less, with the organic medieval 
monarchy.) It is also entirely evident that a dictatorship may be exercised by a popular 
chief, a hereditary aristocracy, a clan of bankers, or even by the masses. 

In itself, a dictatorship exercised by a chief or a group of persons is neither 
revolutionary nor counter-revolutionary. It will be either one or the other depending on 
the circumstances that gave rise to it and the work it does. This is the case whether it is in 
the hands of one man or in the hands of a group. 

There are circumstances that demand, for the sake of the salus populi, a 
suspension of individual rights and a greater exercise of public power. A dictatorship, 
therefore, can be legitimate in certain cases. 

A counter-revolutionary dictatorship - a dictatorship completely oriented by the 
desire for order - must have three essential requisites: 

It must suspend rights to protect order, not to subvert it. By order we do not mean 
mere material tranquility, but the disposition of things according to their end and in 
accordance with the respective scale of values. This is, then, a suspension of rights that is 
more apparent than real, the sacrifice of juridical guarantees that evil elements had 
abused to the detriment of order itself and of the common good. This sacrifice is entirely 
directed toward the protection of the true rights of the good. 

8 Pius XII, allocution to the Roman Patriciate and Nobility, January 16, 1946, Discorsi e radiomessagi, vol. 
7, p. 340. 

By definition, this suspension is temporary. It must prepare circumstances for a 
return to order and normality as soon as possible. A dictatorship, to the degree it is good, 
proceeds to put an end to its very reason for being. The intervention of public authority in 
the various sectors of the national life must be undertaken in such a way that, as soon as 
possible, each sector may live with the necessary autonomy. Thus, each family should be 
allowed to do everything it is capable of doing by its nature, being supported by higher 
social groups only in a subsidiary way in what is beyond its sphere of action. These 
groups, in turn, should only receive the help of their municipality in what exceeds their 
nonnal capacity, and so on up the line in the relations between the municipality and the 
region or between the region and the country. 

The essential end of a legitimate dictatorship nowadays must be the 
Counter-Revolution. This does not mean a dictatorship is normally necessary for the 
defeat of the Revolution. But, in certain circumstances, it may be. 

In contrast, a revolutionary dictatorship aims to perpetuate itself. It violates 
authentic rights and penetrates all spheres of society to destroy them. It carries out this 
destruction by sundering family life, harming the genuine elites, subverting the social 
hierarchy, fomenting utopian ideas and disorderly ambitions in the multitudes, 
extinguishing the real life of the social groups, and subjecting everything to the State. In 
short, it favors the work of the Revolution. A typical example of such a dictatorship was 

For this reason, a revolutionary dictatorship is fundamentally anti-Catholic. In 
fact, in a truly Catholic ambience, there can be no climate for such a situation. 

This is not to say that a revolutionary dictatorship in one or another country has 
not sought to favor the Church. But this is merely a question of a political attitude that is 
transformed into open or veiled persecution as soon as the ecclesiastical authority begins 
to hinder the pace of the Revolution. 

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The Metamorphoses of the 
Revolutionary Process 

As can be seen from the analysis in the preceding chapter, the revolutionary 
process is the development by stages of certain disorderly tendencies of Western and 
Christian man and of the errors to which they have given rise. 

In each stage, these tendencies and errors have a particular characteristic. The 
Revolution, therefore, metamorphoses in the course of history. 

The metamorphoses observed in the great general lines of the Revolution recur on 
a smaller scale within each of its great episodes. 

Hence, the spirit of the French Revolution, in its first phase, used an aristocratic 
and even ecclesiastical mask and language. It frequented the court and sat at the table of 
the royal council. Later, it became bourgeois and worked for a bloodless abolition of the 
monarchy and nobility and for a veiled and pacific suppression of the Catholic Church. 
As soon as it could, it became Jacobin and inebriated itself with blood in the Terror. 

But the excesses committed by the Jacobin faction stirred up reactions. The 
Revolution turned back, going through the same stages in reverse. From Jacobin it 
became bourgeois in the Directory. With Napoleon, it extended its hand to the Church 
and opened its doors to the exiled nobility. Finally, it cheered the returning Bourbons. 
Although the French Revolution ended, the revolutionary process did not end. It erupted 
again with the fall of Charles X and the rise of Louis Philippe, and thus through 
successive metamorphoses, taking advantage of its successes and even its failures, it 
reached its present state of paroxysm. 

The Revolution, then, uses its metamorphoses not only to advance but also to 
carry out the tactical retreats that have so frequently been necessary. 

This movement, always alive, has at times feigned death. This is one of its most 
interesting metamorphoses. On the surface, the situation of a certain country looks 
entirely tranquil. The counter-revolutionary reaction slackens and dozes. But in the 
depths of the religious, cultural, social, or economic life, the revolutionary fennent is 
continuously spreading. Then, at the end of this apparent interval, there is an unexpected 
upheaval, often more severe than the previous ones. 



The Three Depths of the Revolution: In 
the Tendencies, in the Ideas, and in the 


As we have seen, this Revolution is a process made up of stages and has its 
ultimate origin in certain disorderly tendencies that serve as its soul and most intimate 
driving force. 9 

Accordingly, we can also distinguish in the Revolution three depths, which, 
chronologically speaking, overlap to a certain extent. 

The first and deepest level consists of a crisis in the tendencies. These disorderly 
tendencies by their very nature struggle for realization. No longer conforming to a whole 
order of things contrary to them, they begin by modifying mentalities, ways of being, 
artistic expressions, and customs without immediately touching directly - at least 
habitually - ideas. 


The crisis passes from these deep strata to the ideological terrain. Indeed, as Paul 
Bourget makes evident in his celebrated work Le Demon du Midi, “One must live as one 
thinks, under pain of sooner or later ending up thinking as one has lived.” 10 Inspired by 
the disorder of these deep tendencies, new doctrines burst forth. In the beginning, they at 
times seek a modus vivendi with the old doctrines, expressing themselves in such a way 
as to maintain a semblance of harmony with them. Generally, however, this soon breaks 
out into open warfare. 


This transfonnation of the ideas extends, in turn, to the terrain of facts. Here, by 
bloody or unbloody means, the institutions, laws, and customs are transfonned both in the 
religious realm and in temporal society. It is a third crisis, now fully within the field of 


9 See Part I, Chapter 3,5; also Chapter 7,3. 

10 Paul Bourget, Le Demon du Midi (Paris: Librairie Plon, 1914), vol. 2, p. 375. 

-23 - 

A. The Depths of the Revolution Are Not Identical to Chronological Stages 

These depths, in a way, are echeloned. But an attentive analysis shows that the 
operations of the Revolution within them are so intermingled in time that these different 
depths cannot be viewed as a number of distinct chronological unities. 

B. The Differentiation of the Three Depths of the Revolution 

These three depths are not always clearly differentiated from one another. The 
degree of distinctness varies considerably from one concrete case to another. 

C. The Revolutionary Process Is Not Irrepressible 

The movement of a people through these various depths is controllable. Taking 
the first step does not necessarily imply reaching the last and thereby sliding into the next 
depth. On the contrary, man’s free will, aided by grace, can overcome any crisis, just as it 
can stop and overcome the Revolution itself. 

In describing these aspects of the Revolution, we act like a physician who depicts 
the complete evolution of an illness right up to death, without meaning by this that the 
illness is incurable. 

- 24 - 


The March of the Revolution 

The previous considerations gave us some data about the march of the 
Revolution, namely, its processive character, its metamorphoses, its outbreak in the 
innermost recesses of the human soul, and its externalization in acts. As can be seen, the 
Revolution has a whole dynamic of its own. We can attain a greater appreciation of this 
by studying additional aspects of the Revolution's march. 


A. The Revolution and the Disordered Tendencies 

The most powerful driving force of the Revolution is in the disordered tendencies. 
For this reason, the Revolution has been compared to a typhoon, an earthquake, a 
cyclone, the unleashed forces of nature being material images of the unbridled passions 
of man. 

B. The Paroxysms of the Revolution Are Fully Present in Its Seeds 

Like cataclysms, evil passions have an immense power-but only to destroy. 

In the first instant of its great explosions, this power already has the potential for 
all the virulence it will manifest in its worst excesses. In the first denials of Protestantism, 
for example, the anarchic yearnings of communism were already implicit. While Luther 
was, from the viewpoint of his explicit formulations, no more than Luther, all the 
tendencies, state of soul, and imponderables of the Lutheran explosion already bore 
within them, authentically and fully, even though implicitly, the spirit of Voltaire and 
Robespierre and of Marx and Lenin. 11 

C. The Revolution Aggravates Its Own Causes 

These disordered tendencies develop like itches and vices; the more they are 
satisfied, the more intense they become. The tendencies produce moral crises, erroneous 
doctrines, and then revolutions. Each of them, in turn, exacerbates the tendencies. The 
latter then lead, by an analogous movement, to new crises, new errors, and new 

11 Cf. Leo XIII, encyclical Quod Apostolici muneris, December 28, 1878, in Fr. Joseph Husslein, S.J., 
Social Wellsprings: Fourteen Epochal Documents by Pope Leo XII (Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Co., 
1940), p. 15. 

-25 - 

revolutions. This explains why we find ourselves today in such a paroxysm of impiety 
and immorality and such an abyss of disorder and discord. 


The existence of periods of accentuated calm might give the impression that at 
such times the Revolution has ceased. It would thus seem that the revolutionary process 
is not continuous and therefore not one. 

However, these calms are merely metamorphoses of the Revolution. The periods 
of apparent tranquility-the supposed intervals-have usually been times of silent and 
profound revolutionary fennent. Consider, for example, the period of the Restoration 
(1815-1830). 12 



From what we have seen, each stage of the Revolution, compared with the 
preceding one, is but a refinement. Naturalistic humanism and Protestantism were refined 
in the French Revolution, which in its turn was refined in the great revolutionary process 
of the Bolshevization of the contemporary world. 

The fact is that disordered passions, moving in a crescendo analogous to the 
acceleration of gravity and feeding upon their own works, lead to consequences which, in 
their turn, develop according to a proportional intensity. In like progression, errors beget 
errors, and revolutions prepare the way for revolutions. 


This revolutionary process takes place at two different speeds. One is fast and 
generally destined to fail in the short term. The other is much slower and has usually 
proven successful. 

A. The Rapid March 

The precommunist movements of the Anabaptists, for example, immediately drew 
in various fields all or nearly all the consequences of the spirit and tendencies of the 
Pseudo-Reformation. They were a failure. 

B. The Slow March 

Slowly, during the course of more than four centuries, the more moderate currents 
of Protestantism, moving from refinement to refinement through successive stages of 
dynamism and inertia, have been gradually favoring, in one way or another, the march of 
the West toward the same extreme point. 14 

See Part I, Chapter 4. 
See 1, C, above. 

See Part II, Chapter 8, 2. 

-26 - 

C. How These Speeds Harmonize 

The role of each of these speeds in the march of the Revolution should be studied. 
It might be said that the more rapid movements are useless, but that is not the case The 
explosion of these extremisms raises a standard and creates a fixed target whose very 
radicalism fascinates the moderates, who slowly advance toward it. Thus, socialism shuns 
communism, which it silently admires and tends toward. 

Even earlier, the same could be said of the communist Babeuf and his henchmen 
during the last flare-ups of the French Revolution. They were crushed. Yet, little by little, 
society treads the path along which they wished to lead it. The failure of the extremists is, 
then, merely apparent. They collaborate indirectly, but powerfully, in the advance of the 
Revolution, gradually attracting the countless multitude of the “prudent,” the “moderate,” 
and the mediocre toward the realization of their culpable and exacerbated chimeras. 


Having considered these notions, we can now refute some objections that could 
not have been analyzed adequately before this point. 

A. Slow-speed Revolutionaries and “Semi-counterrevolutionaries” 

What distinguishes the revolutionary who has followed the rhythm of the fast 
march from the person who is gradually becoming a revolutionary according to the 
rhythm of the slow march? When the revolutionary process began in the fonner, it found 
little or no resistance. Virtue and truth lived a superficial life in his soul. They were as 
dry wood that any spark could set afire. On the contrary, when this process takes place 
slowly, it is because the spark of the Revolution encountered, at least in part, green wood. 
In other words, it has confronted considerable truth or virtue that remains hostile to the 
action of the revolutionary spirit. A soul in this situation is divided and lives between two 
opposing principles, that of the Revolution and that of order. The coexistence of these 
two principles may give rise to very diverse situations. 

a. The slow-speed revolutionary' allows himself to be carried along by the 
Revolution, which he opposes only with the resistance of inertia. 

b. The slow-speed revolutionary who has counter-revolutionary “clots “also 
allows himself to be carried along by the Revolution, but on some concrete point he 
rejects it. Thus, for example, he will be a socialist in every respect except that he retains a 
liking for aristocratic manners. Depending on the case, he may even go so far as to attack 
socialist vulgarity. This is undoubtedly a resistance. But it is a resistance on a question of 
detail, made up of habits and impressions. It does not return to principles. For this very 
reason it is a resistance without any great importance, one that will die with the 
individual. If it should occur in a social group, sooner or later, by violence or persuasion, 
the Revolution inexorably will dismantle it in one or several generations. 

c. The “semi-Counterrevolutionary” 15 differs from the preceding only in that the 
process of “coagulation” was more forceful in him and reverted to basic principles only 
some principles, of course, and not all of them. In him, the reaction against the 
Revolution is more pertinacious, more lively. It is an obstacle that is not merely inertia. 
His conversion to an entirely counter-revolutionary position is easier, at least in thesis. 

See Part I, Chapter 9. 

- 27 - 

Any excess of the Revolution might cause in him a complete transformation, a 
crystallization of his good tendencies into an attitude of unshakeable firmness. However, 
until this felicitous transfonnation takes place, the “semi-counter-revolutionary” cannot 
be considered a soldier of the Counter-Revolution. 

The ease with which both the slow-speed revolutionary and the “semi-counter- 
revolutionary” accept the conquests of the Revolution is typical of their conformity. 

While affirming, for example, the thesis of the union of Church and State, they live with 
indifference in a regime of their separation, without any serious effort to make possible 
an eventual restoration of the union of the two under suitable conditions. 

B. Protestant Monarchies and Catholic Republics 

An objection could be made to our theses: If the universal republican movement 
is a fruit of the Protestant spirit, then why is there only one Catholic king in the world 
today 16 while so many Protestant countries continue to be monarchies? 

The explanation is simple. England, Holland, and the Nordic nations, for a series 
of historical, psychological, and other reasons, have a great affinity with monarchy. 
When the Revolution penetrated them, it could not prevent the monarchical sentiment 
from “coagulating.” Thus, royalty obstinately continues to survive in those countries, 
even though the Revolution is penetrating deeper and deeper in other fields. 
“Surviving”...yes, to the extent that dying slowly can be called surviving. The English 
monarchy, reduced largely to a role of mere display, and the other Protestant monarchies, 
transformed for most intents and purposes into republics whose heads hold life-long 
hereditary office, are quietly agonizing. If things continue as they are, these monarchies 
will die out in silence. 

Without denying that other causes contribute to this survival, we wish to stress 
this very important factor, which falls within the scope of our exposition. 

On the contrary, in the Latin nations the love for an external and visible discipline 
and for a strong and prestigious public authority is, for many reasons, much smaller. 

Consequently, the Revolution did not find in them such a deep-rooted 
monarchical sentiment. It easily swept away their thrones. But heretofore, it has not been 
sufficiently strong to overthrow religion. 

C. Protestant Austerity 

Another objection to our work could arise from the fact that certain Protestant 
sects have an austerity verging on exaggeration. How, then, can one explain all of 
Protestantism as an explosion of the desire to enjoy life? 

Even here the objection is not difficult to resolve. When the Revolution 
penetrated certain enviromnents, it encountered a very strong love for austerity. A “clot” 
formed. Although the Revolution was entirely successful in the matter of pride, it was not 
so in the matter of sensuality. In such environments, life is enjoyed by means of the 
discreet delights of pride and not by the gross pleasures of the flesh. It may even be that 
austerity, encouraged by an intensified pride, reacted in an exaggerated way against 

16 The author is referring to the King of the Belgians. Subsequently, in 1975, Prince Juan Carlos was sworn 
in as King of Spain. - Ed. 

-28 - 

sensuality. But this reaction, however obstinate, is sterile. Sooner or later, through lack of 
sustenance or by violence, it will be destroyed by the Revolution. The breath of life that 
will regenerate the earth will not come from a rigid, cold, and mummified puritanism. 

D. The Single Front of the Revolution 

Such “clots” and crystallizations normally lead to clashes between the forces of 
the Revolution. Considering them, one might think that the powers of evil are divided 
against themselves and that our unitary concept of the revolutionary process is false. 

Such an idea is an illusion. By a profound instinct that reveals they are harmonic 
in their essential elements and contradictory only in their accidents, these forces have an 
astonishing capacity to unite against the Catholic Church whenever they face her. 

Sterile in the good elements remaining in them, the revolutionary forces are only 
truly efficient in evil. Thus, each of them, from its own side, attacks the Church, which 
becomes like a city besieged by an immense anny. 

It behooves us not to fail to include among these forces of the Revolution those 
Catholics who profess the doctrine of the Church but are dominated by the revolutionary 
spirit. A thousand times more dangerous than her declared enemies, they combat the 
Holy City from within her walls. They well merit what Pius IX said of them: 

Though the children of this world be wiser than the children of light, their snares 
and their violence would undoubtedly have less success if a great number of 
those who call themselves Catholics did not extend a friendly hand to them. Yes, 
unfortunately, there are those who seem to want to walk in agreement with our 
enemies and try to build an alliance between light and darkness, an accord 
between justice and iniquity, by means of those so-called liberal Catholic 
doctrines, which, based on the most pernicious principles, adulate the civil power 
when it invades things spiritual and urge souls to respect or at least tolerate the 
most iniquitous laws, as if it had not been written absolutely that no one can 
serve two masters. They are certainly much more dangerous and more baneful 
than our declared enemies, not only because they second their efforts, perhaps 
without realizing it, but also because, by maintaining themselves at the very edge 
of condemned opinions, they take on an appearance of integrity and 
irreprehensible doctrine, beguiling the imprudent friends of conciliations and 
deceiving honest persons, who would revolt against a declared error. In this way, 
they divide the minds, rend the unity, and weaken the forces that should be 
assembled against the enemy. 17 


Since we are studying the driving forces of the Revolution, we must say a word 
about its agents. 

17 Pius IX, letter to the president and members of the Saint Ambrose Circle of Milan, March 6, 1873, in 1 
Papi e La Gioventu (Rome: Editrice A.V.E., 1944), p. 36. 


We do not believe that the mere dynamism of the passions and errors of men 
could coordinate such diverse means to achieve a single end, namely, the victory of the 

The production of a process as consistent and continuous as that of the Revolution 
amid the thousand vicissitudes of centuries fraught with surprises of every kind seems 
impossible to us without the action of successive generations of extraordinarily intelligent 
and powerful conspirators. To think that the Revolution could have reached its present 
state in the absence of such conspirators is like believing that hundreds of letters thrown 
out a window could arrange themselves on the ground to spell out a literary piece, 
Carducci's “Ode to Satan,” for instance. 

Heretofore, the driving forces of the Revolution have been manipulated by most 
sagacious agents, who have used them as means for carrying out the revolutionary 

Generally speaking, one can classify as agents of the Revolution all the sects - 
whatever their nature - engendered by it, from its origin to our days, to disseminate its 
thought or to concatenate its plots. The master sect, however, around which all the others 
are organized as mere auxiliaries - sometimes consciously and other times not - is 
Freemasonry, as clearly follows from the pontifical documents, especially Leo XIII's 
encyclical Humanum genus, of April 20, 1884. 

The success of these conspirators, and particularly Freemasonry, is due not only 
to their indisputable capacity to organize and conspire, but also to their clear 
understanding of the Revolution's profound essence and of the use of natural laws-the 
laws of politics, sociology, psychology, art, economics, and so forth-to advance the 
attaining of their goals. 

In this way, the agents of chaos and subversion are like a scientist who, instead of 
merely relying on his own strength, studies and activates natural forces a thousand times 
more powerful than he. 

Besides largely explaining the success of the Revolution, this provides an 
important indication for the soldiers of the Counter-Revolution. 

- 30 - 


The Essence of the Revolution 

Having rapidly described the crisis of the Christian West, we will now analyze it. 


As already stated, this critical process we have been considering is a revolution. 

A. Meaning of the Word Revolution 

By Revolution we mean a movement that aims to destroy a legitimate power or 
order and replace it with an illegitimate power or state of things. (We have purposely not 
said “order of things.”) 

B. Bloody and Unbloody Revolution 

In this sense, strictly speaking, a revolution may be bloodless. The one we are 
considering developed and continues to develop by all kinds of means. Some of these are 
bloody, others are not. For instance, this century's two world wars, from the standpoint of 
their deepest consequences, are chapters of it, and among the bloodiest. On the other 
hand, the increasingly socialist legislation in all or almost all countries today is a most 
important and bloodless progress of the Revolution. 

C. The Amplitude of the Revolution 

Although the Revolution has often overthrown legitimate authorities and replaced 
them with rulers lacking any title of legitimacy, it would be a mistake to think this is all 
there is to the Revolution. Its chief objective is not the destruction of certain rights of 
persons or families. It desires far more than that. It wants to destroy a whole legitimate 
order of things and replace it with an illegitimate situation. And “order of things” does 
not say it all. It is a vision of the universe and a way of being of man that the Revolution 
seeks to abolish with the intention of replacing them with radically contrary counterparts. 

D. The Revolution Par Excellence 

In this sense, one understands that this is not just a revolution; it is the Revolution. 

-31 - 

E. The Destruction of the Order Par Excellence 

Indeed, the order of things being destroyed is medieval Christendom. Now, 
medieval Christendom was not just any order, or merely one of many possible orders. It 
was the realization, in the circumstances inherent to the times and places, of the only 
authentic order among men, namely, Christian civilization. 

In his encyclical Immortale Dei, Leo XIII described medieval Christendom in 
these terms: 

There was a time when the philosophy of the Gospel governed the states. In that 
epoch, the influence of Christian wisdom and its divine virtue permeated the 
laws, institutions, and customs of the peoples, all categories and all relations of 
civil society. Then the religion instituted by Jesus Christ, solidly established in 
the degree of dignity due to it, flourished everywhere thanks to the favor of 
princes and the legitimate protection of magistrates. Then the Priesthood and the 
Empire were united in a happy concord and by the friendly interchange of good 
offices. So organized, civil society gave fruits superior to all expectations, whose 
memory subsists and will subsist, registered as it is in innumerable documents 
that no artifice of the adversaries can destroy or obscure. 18 

Having begun in the fifteenth century, the destruction of the disposition of men 
and things according to the doctrine of the Church, the teacher of Revelation and Natural 
Law, is almost complete today. This disposition of men and things is order par 
excellence. What is being implanted is the exact opposite of this. Therefore, it is the 
Revolution par excellence. 

Indubitably, the present Revolution had precursors and prefigures. For example, 
Anus and Mohammed were prefigures of Luther. Also, in different epochs, Utopians 
dreamed of days very much like those of the Revolution. Finally, on several occasions, 
peoples or groups tried to establish a state of things analogous to the chimeras of the 

But all these dreams and prefigures are little or nothing in comparison to the 
Revolution in whose process we live. By its radicality, by its universality, by its potency, 
the Revolution has penetrated so deep and is reaching so far that it stands unmatched in 
history. Many thoughtful souls are wondering if we have not in fact reached the times of 
the Anti-Christ. Indeed, to judge from the words of Pope John XXIII, it would seem they 
are not distant. 

We tell you furthermore that in this terrible hour, when the spirit of evil seeks 
every means to destroy the kingdom of God, we must exert ourselves to the 
utmost to defend it, if you do not wish to see your city lying in immensely greater 
ruins than those left by the earthquake of fifty years ago. How much more 
difficult it would be then to raise up the souls, once they had been separated from 
the Church or enslaved to the false ideologies of our times! 19 

18 Leo XII, encyclical Immortale Die, November 1, 1885, Bonne Presse, Paris, vol. 2, p. 39. 

19 John XXIII, radio message of December 28, 1958, to the population of Messina, on the fiftieth 
anniversary of the earthquake which destroyed that city, L ’Osservatore Romano (weekly French Edition), 
January 23, 1959. 

- 32 - 


A. Legitimacy Par Excellence 

In general, the concept of legitimacy is focused on only in the context of dynasties 
and governments. Though heeding the teachings of Leo XIII in the encyclical Au milieu 
des sollicitudes, one cannot ignore the question of dynastic or governmental legitimacy, 
for it is an extremely grave moral matter that upright consciences must consider with all 

However, the concept of legitimacy applies to other problems as well. 

There is a higher legitimacy, characteristic of every order of things in which the 
Royalty of Our Lord Jesus Christ, the model and source of legitimacy for all royalties and 
earthly powers, is effectuated. To fight for legitimate rulers is an obligation, indeed a 
grave one. Yet it is necessary to see the legitimacy of those in authority not only as a 
good, excellent per se, but also as a means to an even higher good, namely, the legitimacy 
of the entire social order, of all human institutions and ambiences, which is achieved 
through the disposition of all things according to the doctrine of the Church. 

B. Catholic Culture and Civilization 

Therefore, the ideal of the Counter-Revolution is to restore and promote Catholic 
culture and civilization. This theme would not be sufficiently enunciated if it did not 
contain a definition of what we understand by Catholic culture and Catholic civilization. 
We realize that the terms civilization and culture are used in many different senses. 
Obviously, it is not our intention here to take a position on a question of terminology. We 
limit ourselves to using these words as relatively precise labels to indicate certain 
realities. We are more concerned with providing a sound idea of these realities than with 
debating tenninology. 

A soul in the state of grace possesses all virtues to a greater or lesser degree. 
Illuminated by faith, it has the elements to form the only true vision of the universe. 

The fundamental element of Catholic culture is the vision of the universe 
elaborated according to the doctrine of the Church. This culture includes not only the 
learning, that is, the possession of the information needed for such an elaboration, but 
also the analysis and coordination of this infonnation according to Catholic doctrine. This 
culture is not restricted to the theological, philosophical, or scientific field, but 
encompasses the breadth of human knowledge; it is reflected in the arts and implies the 
affirmation of values that permeate all aspects of life. 

Catholic civilization is the structuring of all human relations, of all human 
institutions, and of the State itself according to the doctrine of the Church. 

C. The Sacral Character of Catholic Civilization 

It is implicit that such an order of things is fundamentally sacral, and entails the 
recognition of all the powers of the Holy Church, particularly those of the Supreme 
Pontiff: a direct power over spiritual things, and an indirect power over temporal things 
whenever they have to do with the salvation of souls. 

- 33 - 

Indeed, the purpose of society and of the State is virtuous life in common. Now, 
the virtues man is called to practice are the Christian virtues, and the first of these is the 
love of God. Society and the State have, then, a sacral purpose. 20 

Undoubtedly, it is the Church that possesses the proper means to promote the 
salvation of souls, but society and the State have instrumental means for the same end, 
that is, means which, set in motion by a higher agent, produce an effect superior to 

D. Culture and Civilization Par Excellence 

From the foregoing it is easy to infer that Catholic culture and civilization are the 
culture and civilization par excellence. It must be noted that they cannot exist save in 
Catholic peoples. Indeed, even though man may know the principles of Natural Law by 
his own reason, a people without the Magisterium of the Church cannot durably preserve 
the knowledge of all of them.” For this reason, a people that does not profess the true 
religion cannot durably practice all the Commandments. 22 Given these conditions, and 
since there can be no Christian order without the knowledge and observance of the Law 
of God, civilization and culture par excellence are only possible within the fold of the 
Holy Church. Indeed, as Saint Pius X stated, civilization 

is all the more true, all the more lasting, all the more fecund in precious fruits, the 
more purely Christian it is; it is all the more decadent, to the great misfortune of 
society, the farther it withdraws from the Christian ideal. Thus, by the intrinsic 
nature of things, the Church becomes also in fact the guardian and protector of 
Christian civilization. 23 

E. Illegitimacy Par Excellence 

If this is what order and legitimacy are, one easily sees what the Revolution is, for 
it is the opposite of that order. It is disorder and illegitimacy par excellence. 


Two notions conceived as metaphysical values express well the spirit of the 
Revolution: absolute equality, complete liberty. And there are two passions that most 
serve it: pride and sensuality. 

In referring to passions, we must explain in what sense we use the word in this 
work. For the sake of brevity, adhering to the usage of various authors on spiritual 
matters, whenever we speak of the passions as promoters of the Revolution, we are 
referring to disordered passions. And, in keeping with everyday language, we include 

20 Cf. Saint Thomas Aquinas, De Regime Principum, 1, 14-15. 

21 Cf. First Vatican Council, sess. II, chapter 2 (Denzinger 1786). 

22 Cf. Council of Trent, sess. VI, chapter 2 (Denzinger 812). 

23 Saint Pius X, encyclical II fenno proposito, June 11, 1905, Bonne Presse, Paris, vol. 2, p. 92. 

- 34 - 

among the disordered passions all impulses toward sin existing in man as a consequence 
of the triple concupiscence, namely, that of the flesh, the eyes, and the pride of life. 24 

A. Pride and Egalitarianism 

The proud person, subject to another's authority, hates first of all the particular 
yoke that weighs upon him. 

In a second stage, the proud man hates all authority in general and all yokes, and, 
even more, the very principle of authority considered in the abstract. 

Because he hates all authority, he also hates superiority of any kind. And in all 


this there is a true hatred for God. 

This hatred for any inequality has gone so far as to drive high-ranking persons to 
risk and even lose their positions just to avoid accepting the superiority of somebody else. 

There is more. In a height of virulence, pride could lead a person to fight for 
anarchy and to refuse the supreme power were it offered to him. This is because the 
simple existence of that power implicitly attests to the principle of authority, to which 
every man as such - the proud included can be subject. 

Pride, then, can lead to the most radical and complete egalitarianism. 

This radical and metaphysical egalitarianism has various aspects. 

a. Equality between men and God. Pantheism, immanentism, and all esoteric 
forms of religion aim to place God and men on an equal footing and to invest the latter 
with divine properties. An atheist is an egalitarian who, to avoid the absurdity of 
affirming that man is God, commits the absurdity of declaring that God does not exist. 
Secularism is a form of atheism and, therefore, of egalitarianism. It affirms that it is 
impossible to be certain of the existence of God and, consequently, that man should act in 
the temporal realm as if God did not exist; in other words, he should act like a person 
who has dethroned God. 

b. Equality in the ecclesiastical realm : the suppression of a priesthood endowed 
with the power of Orders, magisterium, and government, or at least of a priesthood with 
hierarchical degrees. 

c. Equality among the different religions. All religious discrimination is to be 
disdained because it violates the fundamental equality of men. Therefore, the different 
religions must receive a rigorously equal treatment. To claim that only one religion is true 
to the exclusion of the others amounts to affirming superiority, contradicting evangelical 
meekness, and acting impolitically, since it closes the hearts of men against it. 

d. Equality in the political realm: the elimination or at least the lessening of the 
inequality between the rulers and the ruled. Power comes not from God but from the 
masses; they command and the government must obey. Monarchy and aristocracy are to 
be proscribed as intrinsically evil regimes because they are antiegalitarian. Only 
democracy is legitimate, just, and evangelical. 26 

e. Equality in the structure of society: the suppression of classes, especially those 
perpetuated by heredity, and the extirpation of all aristocratic influence upon the direction 

24 Cf. 1 John 2:16. 

25 See item m, below. 

26 Cf. Saint Pius X, apostolic letter Notre charge apostolique, August 25, 1910, American Catholic 
Quarterly Review, vol. 35 (October 1910), p. 700. 

- 35 - 

of society and upon the general tone of culture and customs. The natural hierarchy 
constituted by the superiority of intellectual over manual work will disappear through the 
overcoming of the distinction between them. 

/ The abolition of the intermediate bodies between the individual and the State, as 
well as of the privileges inherent in every social body. No matter how much the 
Revolution hates the absolutism of kings, it hates intermediate bodies and the medieval 
organic monarchies even more. This is because monarchic absolutism tends to put all 
subjects, even those of the highest standing, at a level of reciprocal equality in a lower 
station that foreshadows the annihilation of the individual and the anonymity that have 
reached their apex in the great urban 

concentrations of socialist societies. Among the intermediate groups to be abolished, the 
family ranks first. Until it manages to wipe it out, the Revolution tries to lower it, 
mutilate it, and vilify it in every way. 

g. Economic equality. No one owns anything; everything belongs to the 
collectivity. Private property is abolished along with each person's right to the full fruits 
of his toil and to the choice of his profession. 

h. Equality in the exterior aspects of existence. Variety easily leads to inequality 
of status. Therefore, variety in dress, housing, furniture, habits, and so on, is reduced as 
much as possible. 

i. Equality of souls. Propaganda standardizes, so to speak, all souls, taking away 
their peculiarities and almost their own life. Even the psychological and attitudinal 
differences between the sexes tend to diminish as much as possible. Because of this, the 
people, essentially a great family of different but harmonious souls united by what is 
common to them, disappears. And the masses, with their great empty, collective, and 
enslaved soul, arise. 27 

j. Equality in all social relations', between grown-ups and youngsters, employers 
and employees, teachers and students, husband and wife, parents and children, etc. 

k. Equality in the international order. The State is constituted by an independent 
people exercising full dominion over a territory. Sovereignty is, therefore, in public law, 
the image of property. Once we admit the idea of a people, whose characteristics 
distinguish it from other peoples, and the idea of sovereignty, we are perforce in the 
presence of inequalities: of capacity, virtue, number, and others. Once the idea of 
territory is admitted, we have quantitative and qualitative inequality among the various 

territorial spaces. This is why the Revolution, which is fundamentally egalitarian, dreams 


of merging all races, all peoples, and all states into a single race, people, and state. 

/. Equality among the different parts of the country. For the same reasons, and by 
analogous means, the Revolution tends to do away with any wholesome regionalism 
whether political, cultural, or other-within countries today. 

m. Egalitarianism and hatred for God. Saint Thomas Aquinas teaches 29 that the 
diversity of creatures and their hierarchical gradation are good in themselves, for thus the 
perfections of the Creator shine more resplendently throughout creation. He says further 
that Providence instituted inequality among the angels as well as among men, both in 

27 Cf. Pius XII, Christmas broadcast, 1944, in Vincent A. Yzermans, Major Addresses of Pope Pius XII (St. 
Paul: North Central Publishing Co., 1961), vol. 2, pp. 81-82. 

28 See Part I, Chapter 11,3. 

29 Cf. Summa Contra Gentiles, II, 45; Summa Theologica, 1, q. 47, a.2. 

- 36 - 

31 * 

the terrestrial Paradise and in this land of exile. For this reason, a universe of equal 
creatures would be a world in which the resemblance between creatures and the Creator 
would have been eliminated as much as possible. To hate in principle all inequality is, 
then, to place oneself metaphysically against the best elements of resemblance between 
the Creator and creation. It is to hate God. 

n. The limits of inequality. Of course, one cannot conclude from this doctrinal 
explanation that inequality is always and necessarily a good. 

All men are equal by nature and different only in their accidents. The rights they 
derive from the mere fact of being human are equal for all: the right to life, honor, 
sufficient living conditions (and therefore the right to work), property, the setting up of a 
family, and, above all, the knowledge and practice of the true religion. The inequalities 
that threaten these rights are contrary to the order of Providence. However, within these 
limits, the inequalities that arise from accidents such as virtue, talent, beauty, strength, 


family, tradition, and so forth, are just and according to the order of the universe. 

B. Sensuality and Liberalism 

Along with the pride that breeds all egalitarianism, sensuality in the broader sense 
of the term is the cause of liberalism. It is in these sad depths that one finds the junction 
between these two metaphysical principles of the Revolution, namely, equality and 
liberty, which are mutually contradictory from so many points of view. 

a. The hierarchy in the soul. God, Who imprinted a hierarchical mark on all 
visible and invisible creation, did the same on the human soul. The intelligence should 
guide the will, and the latter should govern the sensibility. As a consequence of Original 
Sin, a constant friction exists within man between the sensible appetites and the will 
guided by the reason: “I see another law in my members, which fights against the law of 
my mind.” 33 

But the will, even though a sovereign reduced to governing subjects ever 
attempting to rebel, has the means to always prevail . . . provided it does not resist the 
grace of God. 34 

b. Egalitarianism in the soul. The revolutionary process aims to achieve a general 
leveling, but frequently it has been no more than a usurpation of the ruling function by 
those who ought to obey. Once this process is transposed to the relations among the 
powers of the soul, it leads to the lamentable tyranny of the unrestrained passions over a 
weak and ruined will and a darkened intelligence, and especially to the dominion of a 
raging sensuality over the sentiments of modesty and shame. 

When the Revolution proclaims absolute liberty as a metaphysical principle, it 
does so only to justify the free course of the worst passions and the most pernicious 

c. Egalitarianism and liberalism. This inversion - right to think, feel, and do 
everything the unrestrained passions demand - is the essence of liberalism. This is clearly 

30 Cf. Summa Theologica, 1, q. 50, a. 4. 

31 Ibid., q. 96, aa. 3, 4. 

32 Cf. Pius XII, Christmas broadcast, 1944, op. cit., pp. 81-82. 

33 Rom. 7:23. 

34 Cf. Rom. 7:25. 

- 37 - 

shown in the more exacerbated forms of the liberal doctrine. On analyzing them, one 
perceives that liberalism is not interested in freedom for what is good. It is solely 
interested in freedom for evil. When in power, it easily, and even joyfully, restricts the 
freedom of the good as much as possible. But in many ways, it protects, favors, and 
promotes freedom for evil. In this it shows itself to be opposed to Catholic civilization, 
which gives its full support and total freedom to what is good and restrains evil as much 
as possible. 

Now, this freedom for evil is precisely freedom for man as long as he is 
“revolutionary” in his interior, that is, as long as he consents to the tyranny of the 
passions over his intelligence and will. 

Thus liberalism and egalitarianism are fruits of the same tree. 

Incidentally, pride, in breeding hatred against any kind of authority, " induces a 
clearly liberal attitude. And, in this regard, it must be considered an active factor of 
liberalism. However, when the Revolution realized that liberty would result in inequality 
if men, being unequal in their aptitudes and their use of them, were left free, out of hatred 
for inequality it decided to sacrifice liberty. This gave rise to its socialist phase, which is 
but a stage in the process. The Revolution's ultimate aim is to establish a state of things 
wherein complete liberty and complete equality would coexist. 

Thus, historically, the socialist movement is a mere refinement of the liberal 
movement. What leads an authentic liberal to accept socialism is precisely that under it a 
thousand good or at least innocent things are tyrannically forbidden, while the methodical 
satisfaction (sometimes with a show of austerity) of the worst and most violent passions, 
such as envy, laziness, and lust, is favored. On the other hand, the liberal perceives that 
the broadening of authority in the socialist regime is no more than a means within the 
logic of the system for attaining the so intensely desired goal of final anarchy. 

The clashes between certain naive or backward liberals and the socialists are, 
therefore, mere superficial incidents in the revolutionary process. They are harmless 
misunderstandings that disturb neither the profound logic of the Revolution nor its 
inexorable march in a direction 

that, when one sees things clearly, is simultaneously socialist and liberal. 

d. The rock-and-roll generation. The revolutionary process in souls, as herein 
described, produced in the most recent generations, and especially in adolescents of our 
days who hypnotize themselves with rock and roll, a frame of mind characterized by the 
spontaneity of the primary reactions, without the control of the intelligence or the 
effective participation of the will, and by the predominance of fantasy and feelings over 
the methodical analysis of reality. All this is fruit, in large measure, of a pedagogy that 
virtually eliminates the role of logic and the true fonnation of the will. 

e. Egalitarianism, liberalism, and anarchism. In accordance with the preceding 
items, the effervescence of the disordered passions arouses, on the one hand, hatred for 
any restraint and any law, and, on the other, hatred for any inequality. This effervescence 
thus leads to the utopian conception of Marxist anarchism, in which an evolved 
humanity, living in a society without classes or government, could enjoy perfect order 
and the most complete liberty, from which no inequality would arise. As can be seen, this 
ideal is simultaneously the most liberal and the most egalitarian imaginable. 

35 See item A, above. 

- 38 - 

Indeed, the anarchic utopia of Marxism is a state of things in which the human 
personality, having reached a high degree of progress, would be able to develop freely in 
a society with neither state nor government. 

In this society - which would live in complete order despite not having a 
government - economic production would be organized and highly developed, and the 
distinction between intellectual and manual labor would be a thing of the past. A 
selective process, not yet detennined, would place the direction of the economy in the 
hands of the most capable, without resulting in the fonnation of classes. 

These would be the only and insignificant remnants of inequality. But, since this 
anarchic communist society is not the final term of history, it seems legitimate to suppose 
that these remnants would be abolished in a later evolution. 

- 39 - 


The Intelligence, the Will, and the 
Sensibility in the Determination of 
Human Acts 

The previous considerations call for an explication on the role of the intelligence, 
the will, and the sensibility in the relations between error and passion. 

It could seem that we are affirming that every error is conceived by the 
intelligence to justify some disorderly passion. Thus, a moralist who affirms a liberal 
maxim would always be moved by a liberal tendency. 

That is not what we think. The moralist may arrive at a liberal conclusion solely 
through weakness of the intelligence affected by Original Sin. In such a case would there 
necessarily be some moral fault of another nature, carelessness, for instance? This is a 
question beyond the scope of our study. 

What we do affirm is that, historically, this Revolution had its ultimate origin in 
an extremely violent fennent of the passions. And we are far from denying the great role 
of doctrinal errors in this process. 

Authors of great worth - de Maistre, de Bonald, Donoso Cortes, and so many 
others - have written numerous studies on these errors and the way each was derived 
from the other, from the fifteenth to the sixteenth century, and so on till the twentieth 
century. Therefore, it is not our intention to insist on this matter here. 

It does seem to us, however, particularly opportune to focus on the importance of 
the passional factors and their influence in strictly ideological aspects of the revolutionary 
process in which we find ourselves. For, as we see it, little heed is paid to this point. On 
account of this, people do not see the Revolution in its entirety and consequently adopt 
inadequate counter-revolutionary methods. 

We will now add something about the way in which passions can influence ideas. 


By the mere powers of his nature, man can know many truths and practice various 
virtues. However, without the aid of grace, it is impossible for him to perdure in the 


knowledge and practice of all the Commandments. 

This means that in every fallen man there is always a weakness of the intelligence 
and a first tendency, prior to any reasoning, that incites him to rebel against the Law. 

See Part I, Chapter 7,2, D. 

- 40 - 


This fundamental tendency to rebel can, at a certain moment, receive the consent 
of the free will. Fallen man sins thus, violating one or more of the Commandments. But 
his rebellion can go further and reach the point of a more or less unconfessed hatred for 
the very moral order as a whole. This hatred, which is essentially revolutionary, can 
generate doctrinal errors and even lead to the conscious and explicit profession of 
principles contrary to Moral Law and revealed doctrine as such, which constitutes a sin 
against the Holy Ghost. 

When this hatred began to direct the deepest tendencies of Western history, the 
Revolution began. Its process unfolds today, and its doctrinal errors bear the vigorous 
imprint of this hatred, which is the most active cause of the great apostasy of our days. 
By its nature, this hatred cannot be reduced simply to a doctrinal system: It is disorderly 
passion exacerbated to an extremely high degree. 

Such an affirmation, which applies to this particular Revolution, does not imp- 
that there is always a disordered passion at the root of every error. Nor does it deny that 
frequently it was an error that unleashed in a given soul, or even in a given social group, 
the disorder of the passions. We merely affirm that the revolutionary process, considered 
as a whole and also in its principal episodes, had as its most active and profound germ the 
unruliness of the passions. 


One could pose the following objection: If the passions are so important in the 
revolutionary process, it would seem that its victims are always, at least to some degree, 
in bad faith. If Protestantism, for instance, is a child of the Revolution, is every Protestant 
in bad faith? Does this not run contrary to the doctrine of the Church, which admits there 
may be souls of good faith in other religions? 

It is obvious that a person who has complete good faith and is endowed with a 
fundamentally counter-revolutionary spirit may be caught in the webs of revolutionary 
sophisms (be they of a religious, philosophical, political, or any other nature) through 
invincible ignorance. In such persons there is no culpability. 

Mutatis mutandis, the same can be said of those who accept the doctrine of the 
Revolution on one or another restricted point through an involuntary lapse of the 

But if someone, moved by the disorderly passions inherent to the Revolution, 
shares in its spirit, the answer must be otherwise. 

A revolutionary in these conditions may have become convinced that the 
Revolution's subversive maxims are excellent. He will not therefore be insincere, but he 
will be guilty of the error into which he has fallen. 

Also, a revolutionary may have come to profess a doctrine of which he is not 
convinced or is only partially convinced. In this case, he will be partially or totally 

37 Donoso Cortes’s important development on this truth is very pertinent to the present work. See his 
“Ensayo sobre el Catolicismo, el Liberalismo y el Socialism,” in Obras Completas (Madrid: Biblioteca de 
Autores Cristianos, 1946), vol. 2, p. 377. 

-41 - 

In this respect, it seems to us almost unnecessary to stress that when we affirm 
that the doctrines of Marx were implicit in the denials of the Pseudo-Reformation and the 
French Revolution, we do not mean the adepts of these two movements were consciously 
Marxist before the Marxist doctrine was put into writing and were hypocritically 
concealing their opinions. The orderly arrangement of the powers of the soul and, 
therefore, an increase in the lucidity of the intelligence illuminated by grace and guided 
by the Magisterium of the Church are proper to Christian virtue. This is why every saint 
is a model of balance and impartiality. The objectivity of his judgments and the firm 
orientation of his will toward good are not even slightly weakened by the venomous 
breath of the disorderly passions. 

On the contrary, to the degree a man declines in virtue and surrenders to the yoke 
of these passions, his objectivity diminishes in everything connected to them. This 
objectivity becomes particularly disturbed in the judgments a man makes of himself. 

In each concrete case, it is a secret of God to what degree a slow-marching 
revolutionary of the sixteenth or of the eighteenth century, his vision beclouded by the 
spirit of the Revolution, realized the profound sense and the ultimate consequences of its 

In any event, the hypothesis that all were conscious Marxists is to be utterly 

- 42 - 


The “Semi-counterrevolutionary” Is Also a 
Son of the Revolution 

Everything that has been said herein provides grounds for a practical observation. 

Spirits marked by this interior Revolution might conserve a counter-revolutionary 
attitude in respect to one or many points due to an interplay of circumstances and 
coincidences, such as being reared in a strongly traditional and moral milieu. 38 

Nevertheless, the spirit of the Revolution will still be enthroned in the mentality 
of these “semi-counterrevolutionaries.” 

In a people where the majority are in such a state of soul, the Revolution will be 
irrepressible until they change. 

Thus, as a consequence of the Revolution's unity, only the total 
counter-revolutionary is an authentic counter-revolutionary. 

As for the “semi-counterrevolutionaries” in whose souls the idol of Revolution 
begins to totter, their situation is somewhat different. We shall discuss it later. 39 

See Part I, chapter 6, 5, A. 
See Part II, Chapter 12, 10. 

-43 - 


Culture, Arts, and Ambiences in the 

Having described the complexity and scope of the revolutionary process in the 
deepest levels of souls and, therefore, in the mentality of peoples, we are prepared to 
point out the full import of culture, arts, and ambiences in the march of the Revolution. 


The revolutionary ideas enable the tendencies from which they originate to assert 
themselves with appearances of acceptability in the eyes of their adherents and others. 
Used by the revolutionary to shake the true convictions of the latter and thus to unleash or 
exacerbate the rebellion of their passions, these ideas inspire and shape the institutions 
created by the Revolution, and are to be found in the most varied branches of knowledge 
or culture, for it is nearly impossible for any of these branches not to be involved, at least 
indirectly, in the struggle between the Revolution and the Counter-Revolution. 

2. ARTS 

Given that God established mysterious and admirable relations between, on the 
one hand, certain forms, colors, sounds, perfumes, and flavors and, on the other, certain 
states of soul it is obvious that, through the arts, mentalities can be profoundly influenced 
and persons, families, and peoples can be induced to form a profoundly revolutionary 
state of spirit. It suffices to recall the analogy between the spirit of the French Revolution 
and the fashions created during it, or the analogy between the revolutionary turmoil of 
today and the present extravagances in fashion and in the so-called advanced schools of 


Ambiences may favor good or bad customs. To the degree they favor good ones, 
they can oppose the Revolution with the admirable barriers of the reaction, or at least the 
inertia, of everything that is wholesomely customary. To the degree they favor bad 
customs, they can communicate to souls the tremendous toxins and energies of the 
revolutionary spirit. 


For this reason, in point of fact, it must be recognized that the general 
democratization of customs and life-styles, carried to the extremes of a systematic and 

- 44 - 

growing vulgarity, and the proletarianizing action of certain modern art contributed to the 
triumph of egalitarianism as much as or more than the enacting of certain laws or the 
establishing of certain essentially political institutions. 

It also must be recognized that if a person managed, for example, to put a stop to 
immoral or agnostic movies or television programs, he would have done much more for 
the Counter-Revolution than in the course of the everyday proceedings of a parliamentary 
regime, he had brought about the fall of a leftist cabinet. 

-45 - 


The Revolution on Sin and Redemption, 
and the Revolutionary Utopia 

Among the multiple aspects of the Revolution, it is important to emphasize its 
inducement of its offspring to underestimate or deny the notions of good and evil, 
Original Sin, and the Redemption. 


As we have seen, the Revolution is a fruit of sin. However, if it were to 
acknowledge this, it would unmask itself and turn against its own cause. 

This explains why the Revolution tends not only to keep silent about its sinful 
root but also to deny the very notion of sin. Its radical denial applies to Original and 
actual sin and is effected mainly by: 

- Philosophical or juridical systems that deny the validity and existence of Moral 
Law or give this law the vain and ridiculous foundations of secularism. 

- The thousand processes of propaganda that create in the multitudes a state of 
soul that ignores morality without directly denying its existence. All the veneration owed 
to virtue is paid to idols such as gold, work, efficiency, success, security, health, physical 
beauty, muscular strength, and sensory delight. 

The Revolution is destroying the very notion of sin, the very distinction between 
good and evil, in contemporary man. And, ipso facto, it is denying the Redemption by 
Our Lord Jesus Christ, for, if sin does not exist, the Redemption becomes 
incomprehensible and loses any logical relation with history and life. 


In each of its stages, the Revolution has sought to de-emphasize or radically deny 
the existence of sin. 

A. The Immaculate Conception of the Individual 

In its liberal and individualistic phase, the Revolution taught that man is endowed 
with an infallible reason, a strong will, and orderly passions. Hence the concept of a 
human order in which the individual—supposedly a perfect being—was everything and 
the State nothing, or almost nothing, a necessary evil provisionally necessary, perhaps. It 
was the period when it was thought that ignorance was the only cause of errors and 

-46 - 

crimes, that the way to close prisons was to open schools. The immaculate conception of 
the individual was the basic dogma of these illusions. 

The liberal's great weapon against the potential predominance of the State and the 
formation of cliques that might remove him from the direction of public affairs was 
political freedom and universal suffrage. 

B. The Immaculate Conception of the Masses and the State 

Already in the last century, the inaccuracy of at least part of this concept had 
become patent, but the Revolution did not retreat. Rather than acknowledge its error, it 
simply replaced it with another, namely, the immaculate conception of the masses and the 
State. According to this concept, the individual is prone to egoism and can err, but the 
masses are always right and never get carried away by their passions. Their impeccable 
means of action is the State, their infallible means of expression, universal suffrage — 
whence spring parliaments imbued with socialist thought — or the strong will of a 
charismatic dictator, who invariably guides the masses to the realization of their own 


In one-way or another, whether placing all its confidence in the individual alone, 
the masses, or the State, it is in man that the Revolution trusts. Man, self-sufficient thanks 
to science and technology, can resolve all his problems, eliminate pain, poverty, 
ignorance, insecurity, -in short, everything we refer to as the effect of Original or actual 

The utopia toward which the Revolution is leading us is a world whose countries, 
united in a universal republic, are but geographic designations, a world with neither 
social nor economic inequalities, run by science and technology, by propaganda and 
psychology, in order to attain, without the supernatural, the definitive happiness of man. 

In such a world, the Redemption by Our Lord Jesus Christ has no place, for man 
will have overcome evil with science and will have made the earth a technologically 
delightful paradise. And he will hope to overcome death one day by the indefinite 
prolongation of life. 

- 47 - 


The Pacifist and Antimilitarist 
Character of the Revolution 

The pacifist and therefore antimilitarist character of the Revolution is easily 
grasped in light of the preceding chapter. 


In the technological paradise of the Revolution, peace has to be perpetual, for 
science has shown that war is evil, and technology can overcome all its causes. 

Accordingly, there is a fundamental incompatibility between the Revolution and 
the anned forces. These will have to be abolished. In the universal republic there will 
only be a police force-which will be abolished as soon as scientific and technological 
advances have completed the eradication of crime. 


The uniform, by its mere presence, implicitly testifies to some truths that, 
although undoubtedly somewhat generic, are certainly of a counter-revolutionary 

- the existence of values that are greater than life itself and for which one should 
be willing to die - which is contrary to the socialist mentality, wholly characterized by 
abhorrence of risk and pain and by adoration of security and utmost attachment to earthly 

- the existence of morality, for the military condition is entirely based upon ideas 
of honor, of force placed at the service of good and turned against evil, and so on. 


Lastly, there is a temperamental antipathy between the Revolution and the 
military spirit. The Revolution, before it has full control, is verbose, declamatory, and 
scheming. The resolution of matters in a direct, drastic, straightforward way — the 
military way - displeases what we could call the present temperament of the Revolution. 
We stress present in allusion to the current stage of the Revolution among us, because 
there is nothing more despotic and cruel than the Revolution when it is omnipotent. 
Russia has provided an eloquent example of this. But even there the divergence 
remained, since the military spirit is quite different from that of the executioner. 

-48 - 

Having analyzed the revolutionary utopia in its various aspects, we close the 
study of the Revolution. 

-49 - 

The Counter Revolution 

- 50 - 


The Counter-Revolution Is a Reaction 


If such is the Revolution, what is the Counter-Revolution? In the literal sense of 
the word - therefore stripped of the illegitimate and demagogic connotations given it in 
everyday language - the Counter-Revolution is a reaction. That is to say, it is an action 
directed against another action. It is to the Revolution what, for example, the 
Counter-Reformation is to the Pseudo-Reformation. 


The Counter-Revolution derives its nobility and importance from this character of 
reaction. Indeed, if the Revolution is killing us, nothing is more indispensable than a 
reaction that aims to crush it. To be adverse in principle to a counter-revolutionary 
reaction is the same as desiring to deliver the world over to the Revolution's dominion. 


It must be added that the Counter-Revolution, in this light, is not and cannot be a 
movement in the clouds, one that fights phantoms. It has to be the Counter-Revolution of 
the twentieth century, waged against the Revolution as it is in fact today. Therefore, it has 
to be waged against the revolutionary passions as they are inflamed today, revolutionary 
ideas as formulated today, revolutionary ambiences as seen today, revolutionary art and 
culture as they are today, and against the individuals and currents of opinion that, at 
whatever level, are the most active promoters of the Revolution today. The 
Counter-Revolution is not, then, a mere recitation of the evil deeds of the Revolution in 
the past, but an effort to bar its course in the present. 


The modernity of the Counter-Revolution does not consist in ignoring the 
Revolution nor in making a pact with it, even in the slightest degree. To the contrary, it 
consists in knowing the Revolution in its unchanging essence and in its relevant 
contemporary accidents, and combating the fonner and the latter intelligently, astutely, 
and systematically, using every licit means and the assistance of every child of light. 

- 51 - 


Reaction and Historical Immobility 


If the Revolution is disorder, the Counter-Revolution is the restoration of order. 
And by order we mean the peace of Christ in the Reign of Christ, that is, Christian 
civilization, austere and hierarchical, fundamentally sacral, antiegalitarian, and 


However, by force of the historical law according to which immobility does not 
exist in temporal things, the order bom of the Counter-Revolution must have its own 
characteristics that will make it different from the order that existed before the 
Revolution. Of course, this affirmation does not refer to principles but to accidents. These 
accidents are, nevertheless, of such importance that they deserve to be mentioned. 

Since it is impossible for us to go into this matter at length, we will merely note 
that, in general, when a fracture or a laceration occurs in an organism, the zone of 
mending or healing is marked by special safeguards. It is the loving care of Providence 
acting through secondary causes against the possibilities of a new disaster. This can be 
observed in the case of broken bones, whose mend forms as a reinforcement in the very 
zone of the fracture, or in the case of scar tissue. This is a material image of an analogous 
fact that takes place in the spiritual order. As a general rule, the sinner who truly amends 
has a greater horror for sin than he had in the best years before his fall. Such is the history 
of the penitent saints. So, also, after each trial, the Church emerges specially armed 
against the evil that tried to prostate her. A typical example of this is the Counter 

By virtue of this law, the order born of the Counter-Revolution will have to shine 
even more than that of the Middle Ages in the three principal points in which the latter 
was wounded by the Revolution: 

- A profound respect for the rights of the Church and of the Papacy, and the sacralization, 
to the utmost possible extent, of the values of temporal life, all of this out of opposition to 
secularism, interconfessionalism, atheism, and pantheism, as well as their respective 

- A spirit of hierarchy marking all aspects of society and State, of culture and life, 
out of opposition to the egalitarian metaphysics of the Revolution. 

- A diligence in detecting and combating evil in its embryonic or veiled forms, in 
fulminating it with execration and a note of infamy, and in punishing it with unbreakable 
firmness in all its manifestations, particularly in those that offend against orthodoxy and 

- 52 - 

purity of customs, in opposition to the liberal metaphysics of the Revolution and its 
tendency to give free rein and protection to evil. 

- 53 - 


The Counter-Revolution and the Craving 
After Novelties 

The tendency of so many of our contemporaries, children of the Revolution, is to 
unrestrictedly love the present, adore the future, and unconditionally consign the past to 
scorn and hatred. This tendency gives rise to a series of misunderstandings about the 
Counter-Revolution that should be brought to an end. Above all, it seems to many that 
the traditionalist and conservative character of the Counter-Revolution renders it a bom 
enemy of human progress. 


A. Reason 

As we have seen, the Counter-Revolution is an effort developed in terms of the 
Revolution. The Revolution constantly turns against a whole legacy of Christian 
institutions, doctrines, customs, and ways of being, feeling, and thinking that we received 
from our forefathers and that are not yet completely abolished. The Counter-Revolution 
is therefore the defender of Christian traditions. 

B. The Smoking Wick 

The Revolution attacks Christian civilization in a manner that is more or less like 
that of a certain tree of the Brazilian forest. This tree, the strangler fig Urostigma olearia, 
by wrapping itself around the tru nk of another tree, completely covers it and kills it. In its 
“moderate” and low-velocity currents, the Revolution approached Christian civilization 
in order to wrap itself around it and kill it. We are in a period in which this strange 
phenomenon of destruction is still incomplete. In other words, we are in a hybrid 
situation wherein what we would almost call the mortal remains of Christian civilization, 
and the aroma and remote action of many traditions only recently abolished yet still 
somehow alive in the memory of man, coexist with many revolutionary institutions and 

Faced with the struggle between a splendid Christian tradition in which life still 
stirs and a revolutionary action inspired by the mania for novelties to which Leo XIII 
referred in the opening words to the encyclical Rerum novarum, it is only natural that the 
true counter-revolutionary be a born defender of the treasury of good traditions, for these 
are the values of the Christian past that remain and must be saved. In this sense, the 
counter-revolutionary acts like Our Lord, Who did not come to extinguish the smoking 

- 54 - 

wick nor to break the bruised reed. 40 Therefore, he must lovingly try to save all these 
Christian traditions. A counter-revolutionary action is, essentially, a traditionalist action. 

C. False Traditionalism 

The traditionalist spirit of the Counter-Revolution has nothing in common with a 
false and narrow traditionalism, which conserves certain rites, styles, or customs merely 
out of love for old forms and without any appreciation for the doctrine that gave rise to 
them. This would be archaeologism, not a sound and living traditionalism. 


Is the Counter-Revolution conservative? In one sense, it is, and profoundly so. 
And in another sense, it is not, and also profoundly so. 

If it is a question of conserving something of the present that is good and deserves 
to live, the Counter-Revolution is conservative. 

But if it is a question of perpetuating the hybrid situation in which we find 
ourselves, of keeping the revolutionary process at its present stage, while remaining 
immobile like a statue of salt, on the sidelines of history and of time, embracing alike 
what is good and evil in our century, thus seeking a perpetual and harmonious 
coexistence of good and evil, then, the Counter-Revolution neither is nor can be 


Does the Counter-Revolution favor progress? Yes, if the progress is authentic. 
No, if it is the march toward the revolutionary utopia. 

In its material aspect, genuine progress consists in the rightful use of the forces of 
nature according to the law of God, for the service of man. For this reason, the 
Counter-Revolution makes no pads with today's hypertrophied technicalism, with its 
adoration of novelties, speed, and machines, nor with the deplorable tendency to organize 
human society mechanistically. These are excesses that Pius XII condemned profoundly 
and precisely. 41 

Nor is the material progress of a people the main element of progress in Christian 
understanding. The latter lies above all in the full development of the powers of the soul 
and the ascent of mankind toward moral perfection. Thus, a counter-revolutionary 
conception of progress supposes the prevalence of spiritual values over material 
considerations. Accordingly, it is proper to the Counter-Revolution to promote, among 
individuals and the multitudes, a far greater esteem for all that has to do with true 
religion, philosophy, art, and literature than for what has to do with the good of the body 
and the exploitation of matter. 

Finally, to clearly differentiate between the revolutionary and 
counter-revolutionary concepts of progress, it is necessary to note that the 
counter-revolutionary takes into account that the world will always be a valley of tears 

40 Cf. Matt. 12:20. 

41 Cf. Christmas broadcast, 1957, in Yzermans, The Major Addresses of Pope Pins XII, vol. 2, p. 233. 

- 55 - 

and a passageway to heaven, while the revolutionary considers that progress should make 
the earth a paradise in which man lives happily with no thought of eternity. 

From the very notion of rightful progress, one can see that the revolutionary 
process is its contrary. 

Thus, the Counter-Revolution is an essential condition for the preservation of the 
normal development of authentic progress and the defeat of the revolutionary utopia, 
which has only a facade of progress. 

- 56 - 


What Is a Counter-Revolutionary? 

What is a counter-revolutionary? One may answer the question in two ways: 


The actual counter-revolutionary is one who: 

- knows the Revolution, order, and the Counter-Revolution in their respective 
spirits, doctrines, and methods; 

- loves the Counter-Revolution and Christian order, and hates the Revolution and 

- makes of this love and this hatred the axis around which revolve all his ideals, 
preferences, and activities. 

Of course this attitude of soul does not require higher education. Saint Joan of Arc 
was no theologian but astounded her judges by the theological profundity of her thoughts. 
So also, animated by an admirable understanding of the Revolution’s spirit and aims, 
simple peasants of Navarre, for instance, or of Vendee or Tyrol, have often been the best 
soldiers of the Counter-Revolution. 


Potential counter-revolutionaries are those who have one or another of the 
opinions and ways of feeling of revolutionaries, either because of inadvertence or some 
other occasional reason, but without the very depth of their personalities being affected 
by the spirit of the Revolution. Alerted, enlightened, and oriented, these persons easily 
embrace a counter-revolutionary position. And in this they are different from the 
“semi-counter-revolutionaries” mentioned earlier. 42 

See Part I, Chapter 9. 

- 57 - 


The Counter-Revolution's Tactics 

The tactics of the Counter-Revolution can be looked at in the light of persons, 
groups, or currents of opinion in terms of three types of minds: the actual 
counter-revolutionary, the potential counter-revolutionary, and the revolutionary. 


The actual counter-revolutionary is not as rare as one might think at first. He has a 
clear vision of things, a fundamental love for coherence, and a strong soul. For this 
reason he has a lucid notion of the disorders of the contemporary world and of the 
catastrophes looming on the horizon. But his very lucidity makes him perceive the full 
extent of the isolation in which he so frequently finds himself in a chaos that to him 
appears to have no solution. Thus, many times, the counter-revolutionary keeps a 
disheartened silence - a sad condition: “Vae Soli ” (“Woe to him that is alone”), the 
Scriptures say. 43 

A counter-revolutionary action must seek, above all, to detect such persons, 
acquaint them with each other, and lead them to support each other in the public 
profession of their convictions. This can be done in two different ways: 

A. Individual Action 

This action must be carried out first of all at the individual level. Nothing is more 
effective than the frank and proud counter-revolutionary stand taken by a young college 
student, an officer, a teacher, a priest especially, an aristocrat, or a blue-collar worker 
who is influential within his circle. The first reaction will sometimes be one of 
indignation. But if he perseveres, after a period that will vary depending on 
circumstances, gradually others will join him. 

B. Combined Action 

These individual contacts naturally tend to raise up in the different milieus several 
counter-revolutionaries who unite in a family of souls whose strength is multiplied by the 
very fact of their union. 


Counter-revolutionaries should present the Revolution and the 
Counter-Revolution in all their aspects: religious, political, social, economic, cultural, 

43 Eccles. 4:10. 

- 58 - 

artistic, and so on. This is necessary because potential counter-revolutionaries generally 
see the Revolution and the Counter-Revolution through only one particular facet. 
Through it they can and should be attracted to the total vision of the Revolution and the 
Counter-Revolution. A counter-revolutionary who argues in only one sphere-for 
example, politics-limits his field of attraction greatly, exposing his action to sterility and 
thereby to decay and death. 


A. The Counter-Revolutionary Initiative 

There are no neutrals in face of the Revolution and the Counter-Revolution. There 
may indeed be noncombatants, whose will or velleities are in one of the two camps, 
whether consciously or not. By revolutionaries we mean, then, not only the integral and 
declared partisans of the Revolution but also the “semi-counterrevolutionaries.” 

The Revolution has progressed, as we have seen, by hiding its complete face, its 
true spirit, and its ultimate aims. 

The best way to refute it among revolutionaries is to show it in its entirety, 
whether as regards its spirit and the general outline of its action, or as regards each of its 
apparently innocent and insignificant manifestations or maneuvers. To thus snatch away 
its veils is to deal it the harshest of blows. 

For this reason, the counter-revolutionary effort must dedicate itself to this task 
with the greatest diligence. 

Secondarily, of course, other resources of well-conducted dialectics are 
indispensable for the success of a counter-revolutionary action. 

There are certain possibilities of working together with the 
“semi-counterrevolutionary” as well as with the revolutionary who has 
counter-revolutionary “clots.” This collaboration creates a special problem: Up to what 
point is it prudent? As we see it, the struggle against the Revolution can only be properly 
developed by uniting persons who are radically and entirely free of the virus of the 
Revolution. It is very conceivable that counter-revolutionary groups may be able to work 
with the aforesaid elements for some concrete objectives. But to admit a total and 
continuous collaboration with persons infected with any influence of the Revolution is 
the most flagrant of imprudences and the cause of perhaps most counter-revolutionary 

B. The Revolutionary Counteroffensive 

As a rule, the revolutionary is petulant, verbose, and strutting when he has no or 
only weak adversaries to face him. However, if someone proudly and daringly confronts 
him, he grows quiet and organizes a campaign of silence. One perceives amid the silence, 
however, the discreet buzz of calumny or some murmuring against the “excessive logic” 
of his adversary. But it is a confused and shamed silence that is never broken by any 
worthwhile rejoinder. In face of this silence of confusion and defeat, we could say to the 

victorious counter-revolutionary the spirited words written by Veuillot on a certain 
occasion: “Question the silence, and no answer will it make.” 44 


To the extent possible, the Counter-Revolution should try to win over the 
multitudes. However, it should not make this its chief goal in the short run. The 
counter-revolutionary has no reason to be discouraged because of the fact that the great 
majority of men are not presently on his side. Indeed, an exact study of history shows us 
that it was not the masses who made the Revolution. They moved in a revolutionary 
direction because they had revolutionary elites behind them. If they had had elites of the 
opposite orientation behind them, they likely would have moved in the opposite direction. 
An objective view of history shows that the factor of mass is secondary; the principal 
factor is the formation of elites. For this formation, the counter-revolutionary can always 
use the resources of his individual action, and can therefore obtain good results in spite of 
the shortage of material and technical means with which, at times, he may contend. 

44 Louis Veuillot, Oeuvres Completes (Paris: Lethielleux Librairie Editeur, n.d.), vol. 33, p. 349. 

60 - 


The Counter-Revolution's Means of 


Of course, in principle, counter-revolutionary action deserves to have at its 
disposal the best means: television, radio, major press, and a rational, efficient, and 
brilliant publicity. The true counter-revolutionary should always tend to use these means, 
overcoming the defeatist attitude of some of his companions who immediately surrender 
all hope of using them because they constantly see them in the hands of the children of 

However, we must recognize that, in point of fact, counter-revolutionary action 
will often have to be undertaken without these resources. 


Even so, and with the humblest of means, counter-revolutionary action can obtain 
very appreciable results if such means are utilized with uprightness of spirit and 
intelligence. As we have seen, a counter-revolutionary action is conceivable even if 
reduced to mere individual activity. But it is inconceivable without individual action, 
which, if well accomplished, opens the way for every progress. 

Small journals of counter-revolutionary inspiration, if their standard is good, are 
surprisingly effective, especially in the foremost task of acquainting 
counter-revolutionaries with one another. 

Equally effective, or more so, are books, a speakers’ platfonn, or a professorship 
at the service of the Counter-Revolution. 


Obstacles to the Counter-Revolution 


The pitfalls to be avoided among counter-revolutionaries very often consist of 
certain bad habits of agents of the Counter-Revolution. The themes of 
counter-revolutionary meetings or publications should be carefully chosen. The 
Counter-Revolution should always be ideological in its approach, even when dealing with 
matters fraught with detail and incidentals. To go over questions of current or recent 
party politics may be useful, for example. But to overemphasize small personal questions, 
to make a struggle with local ideological adversaries the main objective of the 
counter-revolutionary action, to portray the Counter-Revolution as if it were a mere 
nostalgia (even though this nostalgia is, of course, legitimate) or a mere obligation of 
personal loyalty, however holy and just, is to depict the particular as if it were the 
general, the part as if it were the whole. It is to mutilate the cause one desires to serve. 


At other times, these obstacles consist of revolutionary slogans that are frequently 
regarded as dogma even in the best circles. 

A. “The Counter-Revolution Is Out of Date” 

The most prevalent and harmful of these slogans claims that the 
Counter-Revolution cannot flourish in our day because it is contrary to the spirit of the 
times. History, it is said, does not turn back. 

If this peculiar principle were true the Catholic religion would not exist, for it 
cannot be denied that the Gospel was radically contrary to the milieu in which Our Lord 
Jesus Christ and the Apostles preached. Also, Gennano-Romanic Catholic Spain would 
not have existed, for nothing is more like a resurrection, and hence in a certain way like a 
return to the past, than the full reconstitution of the Christian grandeur of Spain after the 
eight centuries from Covadonga to the fall of Granada. The Renaissance, so dear to 
revolutionaries, was itself, from various points of view at least, a return to a cultural and 
artistic naturalism that had been petrified for over a millennium. 

History, then, contains comings and goings along the paths of good and the paths 

of evil. 

Incidentally, whenever the Revolution considers something to be consistent with 
the spirit of the times, caution has to be exercised, for all too often it is rubbish from 
some pagan time that it wishes to restore. What is new, for example, about divorce, 
nudism, tyranny, or demagoguery, all of which were so widespread in the ancient world? 

62 - 

And why is the advocate of divorce regarded as modem while the defender of 
indissoluble marriage is considered outdated? The Revolution's concept of modern 
amounts to everything that gives free rein to pride and egalitarianism as well as to 
pleasure-seeking and liberalism. 

B. “The Counter-Revolution Is Negativistic” 

According to another slogan of the Revolution, the Counter-Revolution, by its 
very name, defines itself as something negative and therefore sterile. This is a mere play 
on words, for, based on the fact that the negation of a negation corresponds to an 
affirmation, the human spirit expresses many of its most positive concepts in a negative 
form: infallibility, independence, innocence, and others. Would it be negativism to fight 
for any of these values just because of their negative formulation? Did the First Vatican 
Council perform a negativistic work when it defined papal infallibility? Is the Immaculate 
Conception a negativistic prerogative of the Mother of God? 

If insistence on negating, attacking, and continuously watching the adversary is 
tenned “negativistic” in current speech, then perforce the Counter-Revolution, without 
being merely a negation, has in its essence something fundamentally and wholesomely 
negativistic. It is, as we have said, a movement directed against another movement, and it 
is unthinkable for one adversary in a fight not to have his eyes fixed on the other, 
maintaining an attitude of polemics, attack, and counterattack. 

C. “The Counter-Revolutionary Is Argumentative” 

A third catch phrase criticizes the intellectual works of counter-revolutionaries for 
their negativistic and polemical character, whereby they overemphasize the refutation of 
error instead of simply explaining the truth in a clear manner indifferent to the correction 
of error. These works are deemed counterproductive, for they irritate the adversary and 
drive him away. Save for possible excesses, this seemingly negativistic approach is 
profoundly justified. As previously stated, the doctrine of the Revolution was contained 
in the denials of Luther and the early revolutionaries, but it was only made explicit very 
gradually over centuries. Accordingly, counter-revolutionary authors sensed from the 
very beginning-and legitimately so-that in all revolutionary fonnulations there was 
something which transcended the fonnulations themselves. Within each stage of the 
revolutionary process it is much more important to consider the mentality of the 
Revolution than simply the ideology enunciated in that particular stage. If such work is to 
be profound, efficient, and entirely objective, the progress of the Revolution's march must 
be followed step by step in a painstaking effort to make explicit what is implicit in the 
revolutionary process. Only in this way is it possible to attack the Revolution as it should 
be attacked. All this has obliged counter-revolutionaries to keep their eyes fixed on the 
Revolution, while elaborating and affirming their theses in terms of its errors. In this 
arduous intellectual labor, the doctrines of truth and order that exist in the sacred deposit 
of the Magisterium of the Church constitute the treasury from which the 
counter-revolutionary draws things new and old 45 to refute the Revolution as he sees 
deeper and deeper into its tenebrous abysses. 

45 Cf. Matt. 13:52. 

- 63 - 

Thus, in several of its most important aspects, counter-revolutionary work is 
wholesomely negativistic and polemical. For analogous reasons, the ecclesiastical 
Magisterium more often than not defines truths in relation to the heresies arising in the 
course of history, and it formulates these truths as a condemnation of the opposing errors. 
The Church has never feared that she would hann souls by acting in this way. 


A. Ignoring Revolutionary Slogans 

The counter-revolutionary effort must not be bookish. In other words, it cannot 
content itself with dialectics against the Revolution at a purely scientific, academic level. 
While recognizing the great, even very great, importance of this level, the 
Counter-Revolution must habitually keep its sights trained on the Revolution as thought, 
felt, and lived by public opinion as a whole. In this sense, counter-revolutionaries ought 
to give very special importance to the refutation of revolutionary catch phrases. 

B. Eliminating the Polemical Aspects of Counter-Revolutionary Action 

Sadly, the idea of presenting the Counter-Revolution in a more “sympathetic” and 
“positive” light by preventing it from attacking the Revolution is the most efficient way 
to impoverish its content and dynamism. 46 

Anyone who employs this lamentable tactic displays the same lack of sense as a 
chief of state who, in face of enemy troops crossing his border, were to halt all armed 
resistance in the hope of neutralizing the invader by gaining his sympathy. In reality, he 
would destroy the impetus of the reaction without stopping the enemy. In other words, he 
would surrender his homeland. 

This does not mean that the language of the counter-revolutionary should not 
show nuances befitting the circumstances. 

The Divine Master, when preaching in Judea, which was under the proximate 
influence of the perfidious Pharisees, used strong language. On the contrary, in Galilee, 
where the simple-hearted people predominated and the influence of the Pharisees was 
smaller, His language was more tutorial and less polemical. 

See Part II, Chapter 8,3,B. 

- 64 - 


The Processive Character of the 
Counter-Revolution, and the 
Counter-Revolutionary “Shock” 


It is evident that, like the Revolution, the Counter-Revolution is a process, and 
therefore its progressive and methodical march toward order can be studied. 

Nevertheless, there are some characteristics that profoundly differentiate this 
march from the movement of the Revolution toward complete disorder. This results from 
the fact that the dynamism of good is radically different from the dynamism of evil. 


A. In the Rapid March 

When discussing the two speeds of the Revolution, we saw that some souls are 
gripped by its maxims in a single moment and at once draw all the consequences of 



B. In the Slow March 

We saw also that others accept the revolutionary doctrine slowly, step by step. In 
many cases, this process develops continuously down through generations. A 
“semi-counterrevolutionary” who is strongly opposed to the paroxysms of the Revolution 
has a son who is less opposed to them, a grandson who is indifferent to them, and a great 
grandson who is fully integrated in the revolutionary flux. The reason for this, as we have 
said, is that certain families have in their mentality, subconscious, and ways of feeling a 
remnant of counter-revolutionary habits and leaven that holds them partly bound to order. 
In such families the revolutionary corruption is not as dynamic, and therefore error can 
only advance in their spirits step by step, as it were, disguising itself. 

This same slowness of rhythm explains how many people change their opinions 
enonnously in the course of their lives. For example, as adolescents, they have a severe 
opinion about indecent fashions, according to the environment in which they live. Later, 
as customs “evolve” in a more dissolute direction, these persons adapt themselves to the 

See Part I, Chapter 6, 4. 

- 65 - 

successive fashions. As they grow old, they applaud styles of dress that in their youth 
they would have strongly condemned. They reached this point because they have passed 
slowly and imperceptibly through the nuanced stages of the Revolution. They had neither 
the perspicacity nor the energy required to perceive where they were being led by the 
Revolution, which was acting within and around them. Gradually, they ended up going 
perhaps even as far as a revolutionary of their own age who in his adolescence had opted 
for the first speed. Truth and goodness lie defeated in these souls, but not so defeated 
that, in face of a grave error and a grave evil, they might not suffer a start that at times, in 
a victorious and salvific way, will make them perceive the perverse depth of the 
Revolution and lead them to take a categorical and systematic attitude of opposition to all 
its manifestations. To avoid these wholesome shocks of the soul and these 
counter-revolutionary crystallizations, the Revolution moves step by step. 


If this is bow the Revolution leads the immense majority of its victims, by what 
means can one of them separate himself from this process? Is this means different from 
that by which persons dragged by the high-speed revolutionary march convert to the 

A. The Many Ways of the Holy Ghost 

No one can set limits to the inexhaustible variety of God's ways within souls. It 
would be absurd to attempt to reduce such a complex matter to schemata. One cannot, 
then, in this matter, go beyond indicating some errors to be avoided and some prudent 
attitudes to be proposed. 

Every conversion is a fruit of the action of the Holy Ghost, Who speaks to each 
one according to his necessities, sometimes with majestic severity and at other times with 
maternal suavity, yet never lying. 

B. Nothing Should Be Hidden 

Thus, in the journey from error to truth, the soul does not have to contend with the 
crafty silences of the Revolution nor with its fraudulent metamorphoses. Nothing it ought 
to know is hidden from it. Truth and goodness are thoroughly taught to it by the Church. 
Progress in goodness is not secured by systematically hiding from men the ultimate goal 
of their formation, but by showing it and rendering it ever more desirable. 

The Counter-Revolution must not, then, disguise its whole breadth. It must adopt 
the eminently wise rules laid down by Saint Pius X as the normative code of behavior for 
the true apostle: “It is neither loyal nor worthy to hide Catholic status, disguising it with 
some equivocal banner, as if such status were damaged or smuggled goods.” 48 Catholics 
should not “veil the more important precepts of the Gospel out of fear of being perhaps 
less heeded or even completely abandoned.” 49 To this the Holy Pontiff judiciously added: 

48 Saint Pius X, letter to Count Medolago Albani, President of the Socioeconomic Union of Italy, 
November 22, 1909, Bonne Press, Paris, vol. 5, p. 76. 

49 Saint Pius X, encyclical Jucunda sane, March 12, 1904, Bonne Presse, Paris, vol. 1, p. 158. 

- 66 - 

No doubt it will not be alien to prudence, when proposing the truth, to make use of a 
certain temporization when it is a matter of enlightening men who are hostile to our 
institutions and entirely removed from God. Wounds that have to be cut into, as Saint 
Gregory said, should first be touched with a delicate hand. But such skill would take on 
the aspect of carnal prudence if made a constant and common norm of conduct. This is 
all the more so since in this way one would seem to have very little regard for Divine 
grace, which is conferred not only upon the priesthood and its ministers but upon all the 
faithful of Christ, so that our words and acts might move the souls of these men. 50 

C. The “Shock” of the Great Conversions 

Though we have decried the attempt to reduce this matter to simple schemata, it 
nevertheless seems to us that complete and conscious adherence to the Revolution as it 
concretely presents itself is an immense sin, a radical apostasy, from which one can only 
return by means of an equally radical conversion. 

Now, according to history, it seems that the great conversions usually occur by a 
fulminating thrust of the soul caused by grace on the occasion of a given internal or 
external fact. This thrust is different in each case but often has certain similar features. In 
fact, when a revolutionary converts to the Counter-Revolution, this thrust not 
infrequently takes place along the following general lines: 

a. In the soul of the hardened sinner who, in the rapid march of the process, went 
immediately to the extreme of the Revolution, there are always resources of intelligence 
and common sense and tendencies toward good that are more or less defined. Although 
God never deprives these souls of sufficient grace, He frequently waits until they have 
reached the very depths of misery, wherein He suddenly brings home to them the 
enonnity of their errors and sins as if in a fulgurant flash. Only when he had fallen into 
the state where he would fain have filled his belly with the husks of the swine did the 
prodigal son really see himself as he actually was and return to his father's house. 51 

b. In the lukewarm and shortsighted soul, which is slowly shipping down the ramp 
of the Revolution, there still act certain supernatural leavens not entirely refused; values 
of tradition, order, and religion still glow like embers under the ash. Such souls, by a 
wholesome shock in a moment of extreme disgrace, may also open their eyes and 
instantly revive everything that was pining and wasting away within them; it is the 


rekindling of the smoking wick. 

D. The Likelihood of This Shock in Our Days 

Now, since all humanity finds itself in the imminence of a catastrophe, this seems 
to be precisely the great moment prepared by the mercy of God. Both high- and 
low-speed revolutionaries can open their eyes in the terrible twilight in which we live and 
be converted to God. 

Without demagoguery, without exaggeration, but at the same time without 
weakness, the counter-revolutionary must zealously take advantage of the tremendous 
spectacle of this darkness to bring the facts home to the children of the Revolution, and 

50 Ibid. 

51 Cf. Luke 51: 16-19. 

52 Cf. Matt. 12:20. 

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thus produce in them the saving “flash.” To boldly point out the perils that beset us is an 
essential feature of an authentically counter-revolutionary action. 

E. Showing the Whole Face of the Revolution 

It is not sufficient to point out the risk that our civilization may disappear 
altogether. We must know how to reveal amid the chaos that envelops us the whole face 
of the Revolution in its immense hideousness. Whenever this face is revealed, outbursts 
of vigorous reaction appear. 

For this reason, during the French Revolution and throughout the nineteenth 
century, the counter-revolutionary movement in France was stronger than ever before. 
Never had the face of the Revolution been seen so well. The immensity of the maelstrom 
in which the old order of things had been shipwrecked had suddenly opened the eyes of 
many people to a host of truths silenced or denied by the Revolution down through the 
centuries. Above all, the spirit of the Revolution had become clear to them in all its 
malice and in all its profound connections with ideas and habits long considered innocent 
by most people. 

Thus, the counter-revolutionary must frequently unmask the whole face of the 
Revolution in order to exorcise the spell it casts upon its victims. 

F. Pointing Out the Metaphysical Aspects of the Counter-Revolution 

The quintessence of the revolutionary spirit consists, as we have seen, in hating, 
in principle and on the metaphysical plane, all inequality and all law, especially Moral 
Law. Moreover, pride, rebelliousness, and impurity are precisely the factors that most 


impel mankind along the way of the Revolution. 

Therefore, one of the very important parts of counter-revolutionary work is to 
teach a love for inequality considered on the metaphysical plane, for the principle of 
authority, and for Moral Law and purity. 

G. The Two stages of the Counter-Revolution 

a. With the radical change of the revolutionary into a counter-revolutionary, the 
first stage of the Counter-Revolution ends in him. 

b. The second stage may take quite a long time. In it, the soul proceeds to adjust 
all his ideas and ways of feeling to the position taken in the act of conversion. 

These two great and quite distinct stages delineating the counter-revolutionary 
process are presented here as they occur in a soul considered by itself. Mutatis mutandis, 
they may occur in large groups and even in whole peoples as well. 


See Part I, Chapter 7,3. 


The Driving Force of the 

There is a driving force of the Counter-Revolution, just as there is one of the Revolution. 


We have singled out the dynamism of the human passions unleashed in a 
metaphysical hatred against God, virtue, good, and especially against hierarchy and 
purity, as the most potent driving force of the Revolution. Likewise, there exists a 
counter-revolutionary dynamism, though of an entirely different nature. Passions as such 
(here referred to in their technical sense) are morally indifferent; it is their disorderliness 
that makes them bad. However, while regulated, they are good and obey the will and 
reason faithfully. It is in the vigor of soul that comes to a man because God governs his 
reason, his reason dominates his will, and his will dominates his sensibility, that we must 
look for the serene, noble, and highly effective driving force of the Counter-Revolution. 


Such vigor of soul cannot be explained unless supernatural life is taken into 
account. The role of grace consists precisely in enlightening the intelligence, 
strengthening the will, and tempering the sensibility so that they turn toward good. 
Hence, the soul gains immeasurably from supernatural life, which elevates it above the 
miseries of fallen nature, indeed, above the level of human nature itself. In this strength 
of the Christian soul lies the dynamism of the Counter-Revolution. 


One might ask, of what value is this dynamism? We respond that in thesis it is 
incalculable and certainly superior to that of the Revolution: “Omnia possum in eo qui me 
confortat” (“I can do all things in Him who strengthens me”). 54 

When men resolve to cooperate with the grace of God, the marvels of history are 
worked: the conversion of the Roman Empire; the formation of the Middle Ages; the 
reconquest of Spain, starting from Covadonga; all the events that result from the great 

54 Phil. 4:13. 

- 69 - 

resurrections of soul of which peoples are also capable. These resurrections are 
invincible, because nothing can defeat a people that is virtuous and truly loves God. 

- 70 - 


The Counter-Revolution, Sin, and the 


One of the most significant missions of the Counter-Revolution is reestablishing 
or reviving the distinction between good and evil, the notion of sin in thesis, of Original 
Sin, and of actual sin. When performed with a profound compenetration of the spirit of 
the Church, this task does not produce despair of the Divine Mercy, hypochondria, 
misanthropy, or the like, so frequently mentioned by certain authors more or less imbued 
with the maxims of the Revolution. 


The notion of good and evil can be revived in various ways, including: 

- Avoiding all formulations that smack of secularist or interdenominational 
morality, because secularism and interdenominationalism logically lead to amorality. 
Opportunely pointing out that God has the right to be obeyed and that, therefore, His 
Commandments are true laws, which we ought to observe in the spirit ofobedience and 
not simply because they please us. 

- Emphasizing that the law of God is intrinsically good and according to the order 
of the universe, in which the perfection of the Creator is mirrored. For this reason, it 
should not only be obeyed, but loved; and evil should not only be shunned, but hated. 
Spreading the notion of a reward and of a chastisement after death. 

- Favoring social customs and laws in which uprightness is honored and 
wickedness suffers public sanctions. 

- Favoring customs and laws meant to prevent proximate occasions of sin and 
even those conditions that, having the mere appearance of evil, may be harmful to public 

- Insisting on the effects of Original Sin in man, his frailty, the fruitfulness of the 
Redemption by Our Lord Jesus Christ, and the need for grace, prayer, and vigilance in 
order for man to persevere. 

- Making use of every opportunity to indicate the mission of the Church as the 
teacher of virtue, the fountain of grace, and the irreconcilable enemy of error and sin. 

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The Counter-Revolution and Temporal 

The Counter-Revolution and temporal society is a theme that has been treated in 
depth from various standpoints in many valuable studies. This study, since it cannot 
encompass the entire subject, restricts itself to giving the more general principles of a 
counter-revolutionary temporal order 55 and to analyzing the relations between the 
Counter-Revolution and some of the major organizations that fight to better the temporal 


Within temporal society, there are numerous organizations dedicated to dealing 
with the social question and having in view, either directly or indirectly, the same 
supreme end as the Counter-Revolution: the establishment of the Reign ofOur Lord Jesus 
Christ. Given this community of ends, 56 it is necessary to study the relations between the 
Counter-Revolution and these organizations. 

A. Works of Charity, Social Service, Associations of Employers, Workers, and So Forth 

a. To the degree that these works nonnalize social and economic life, they are 
prejudicial to the development of the revolutionary process. In this sense, they are ipso 
facto precious auxiliaries of the Counter-Revolution, even if only in an implicit and 
indirect way. 

b. Nevertheless, in this respect, it is worthwhile to call to mind some truths that 
are unfortunately often obscured among those who devote themselves selflessly to these 

There is no doubt that such works can alleviate and, in some cases, eliminate the 
material necessities that are the cause of so much unrest among the masses. But the spirit 
of the Revolution does not arise primarily from misery. Its root is moral and therefore 
religious. 57 Accordingly, to the extent their particular nature allows, these works must 

55 See especially Part I, Chapter 7,2. 

56 See Part II, Chapter 12, 7. 

57 Cf. Leo XII, encyclical Graves de Communi, January 18, 1901, in Wynne, The Great Encyclical Letters 
of Pope Leo XIII, pp. 485-486. 

- 72 - 

promote a religious and moral formation that gives special emphasis to warning souls of 
the revolutionary virus, which is so powerful in our days. 

- Holy Mother Church compassionately encourages everything that might relieve 
human miseries. She does not blind herself to the fact that she cannot eliminate all of 
them, and she preaches a holy resignation to sickness, poverty, and other privations. 

- Undoubtedly in these works there are precious opportunities for creating a 
climate of understanding and charity between employers and workers and, consequently, 
for demobilizing those who are on the brink of class struggle. But it would be incorrect to 
suppose that kindness always disarms human wickedness. Not even the innumerable 
benefits conferred by Our Lord during His earthly life deterred the hatred the wicked had 
for Him. Thus, although in the fight against the Revolution one should preferably guide 
and enlighten souls in an affable manner, it is evident that, against its various fonns — 
Communism, for example — a direct and express combat by all just and legal means is 
licit and generally even indispensable. 

- It is particularly to be observed that these works should inculcate in their 
beneficiaries or associates a true sense of gratitude for the favors received, or, when it is 
not a question of favors but of acts of justice, a real appreciation for the moral 
uprightness that inspires such acts. 

- In the preceding paragraphs, we had principally the worker in mind. It should be 
pointed out, however, that the counter-revolutionary does not systematically favor one 
social class or another. While highly zealous for the right of property, he should 
nevertheless remind the higher classes that it is not enough for them to fight the 
Revolution in the fields in which it attacks their personal interests, and, paradoxically, to 
favor it — as one so often sees — by word or example in every other terrain, such as in 
family life, at the beaches, swimming pools, and other diversions, in intellectual and 
artistic pursuits, and so on. A working class that follows their example and accepts their 
revolutionary ideas will inevitably be used by the Revolution against the 
“semi-counterrevolutionary” elites. 

- An aristocracy and a bourgeoisie that vulgarize their manners and dress in order 
to disann the Revolution harm themselves. A social authority that degrades itself is 
comparable to the salt that has lost its savor. It is good for nothing save to be cast out and 
trodden on by men. ' In most cases, the scorning multitudes will do just that. 

- Although maintaining their station in life with dignity and energy, the upper 
classes should have direct and benevolent contact with the other classes. Charity and 
justice practiced at a distance are inadequate to establish li nk s of truly Christian love 
among the social classes. 

- Above all, those who own property should remember that if there are many 
people willing to prevent communism from encroaching on the right to private property 
(regarded, of course, as an individual right with a function that is also social), it is 
because this is desired by God and intrinsically according to Natural Law. Now, this 
principle refers to the property of the worker as much as to that of the employer. 
Consequently, the same principle behind the anticommunist struggle should lead the 
employer to respect the right of the worker to a just wage, in keeping with his own needs 
and those of his family. It is worth recalling this in order to emphasize that the 

58 Cf. Matt. 5:13. 

- 73 - 

Counter-Revolution is not only the guardian of the property of the employer but of that of 
the worker too. Its struggle is not on behalf of groups or classes, but for principles. 

B. The Struggle Against Communism 

We will now consider organizations whose main purpose is not the construction 
of a proper social order but rather the struggle against communism. For reasons already 
expounded in this work, we deem this kind of organization to be legitimate and often 
even indispensable. Of course, in saying this, we are not identifying the 
Counter-Revolution with abuses that organizations of this kind may have committed in 
one country or another. 

Nevertheless, we believe that the counter-revolutionary efficacy of such 
organizations can be greatly increased if their members, while remaining within the 
sphere of their specialized activities, keep certain essential truths in mind: 

- Only an intelligent refutation of communism is efficacious. The mere repetition 
of catch phrases, even when clever and apt, is insufficient. 

- This refutation, when made in cultured circles, must be aimed at the ultimate 
doctrinal foundations of communism. It is important to point out its essential character as 
a philosophical sect that deduces from its principles a particular concept of man, society, 
the State, history, culture, and so on, just as the Church deduces from Revelation and 
Moral Law al the principles of Catholic civilization and culture. Accordingly, no 
conciliation is possible between communism - a sect that contains the plenitude of the 
Revolution — and the Church. 

- So-called scientific communism is unknown by the multitudes, and the doctrine 
of Marx does not attract the masses. An ideological anticommunist action among the 
general public must be aimed at a very widespread state of spirit that often makes 
anticommunists ashamed to oppose communism. This state of spirit springs from the 
more or less conscious idea that all inequality is unjust and that not only great fortunes 
but even medium-sized ones must be eliminated, for if there were no rich there would be 
no poor. This reveals vestiges of certain socialist schools of thought of the nineteenth 
century, perfumed with romantic sentimentalism. It gives rise to a mentality that claims 
to be anticommunist but, nevertheless, frequently calls itself socialist. 

This mentality, which is becoming more and more powerful in the West, is a 
much greater danger than Marxist indoctrination itself. It leads us slowly down a slope of 
concessions that may reach the extreme point where nations on this side of the Iron 
Curtain will have become communist republics. Such concessions, which show a 
tendency to economic egalitarianism and state control, can be noted in every sphere. 
Private enterprise is more and more limited. Inheritance taxes are so onerous that in 
certain cases the federal treasury is the principal heir. Government interference in such 
things as exchange, export, and import makes industry, commerce, and banking 
dependent on the State. The State intervenes in wages, rents, prices, in everything. It has 
industries, banks, universities, newspapers, radio stations, television channels, and more. 
And while egalitarian statism transforms the economy in this way, immorality and 
liberalism are tearing the family apart and paving the way for so-called free love. 

Unless this mentality is specifically fought, the West will be communist in fifty or 
one hundred years, even should a cataclysm engulf Russia and China. 

- 74 - 

- The right of property is so sacred that, even if a regime were to give the Church 
full liberty and even full support, she could not accept as licit a social organization in 
which all property were held collectively. 


While opposing a universal republic, the Counter-Revolution is also adverse to 
the unstable and inorganic situation created by the sundering of Christendom and the 
secularization of international life in modern times. 

The full sovereignty of each nation does not prevent the peoples that live within 
the fold of the Church, gathered as one huge spiritual family, from constituting bodies 
profoundly imbued with the Christian spirit, and possibly presided over by 
representatives of the Holy See, to resolve their differences at the international level. 
Such bodies could also favor the cooperation of the Catholic peoples for the common 
good in all its aspects, especially with regard to the defense of the Church against the 
infidels and the protection of the freedom of missionaries in pagan lands or those 
dominated by communism. Finally, such bodies could enter into contact with non- 
Catholic peoples for the maintenance of good order in international relations. 

Without denying the important services that lay bodies may have rendered on 
various occasions, the Counter-Revolution should always call attention to the terrible 
shortcoming that lies in their secularism and alert persons to the risk of these bodies 
becoming a genn of a universal republic. 59 


In this connection, the Counter-Revolution must favor the maintenance of all 
sound local characteristics, in whatever field, in culture, customs, and so on. 

But its nationalism does not consist of the systematic disparagement of what 
belongs to others nor the adoration of national values as if they were extraneous to the 
great treasury of Christian civilization. 

The grandeur the Counter-Revolution desires for all countries is and can be only 
one: Christian grandeur, which entails the preservation of the values peculiar to each and 
a fraternal relationship among them all. 


The counter-revolutionary must lament armed peace, hate unjust war, and deplore 
the arms race of our days. 

However, since he is under no illusion that peace will always reign, he considers 
the military class a necessity in this land of exile, and requests that it be shown all the 
sympathy, gratitude, and admiration rightfully owed to those whose mission it is to fight 
and die for the common good. 60 

59 See Part I, Chapter 7, 3, A, k. 

60 See Part I, Chapter 12. 

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The Church and the Counter-Revolution 

As we have seen, the Revolution was born from an explosion of disorderly 
passions that is leading to the total destruction of temporal society, the complete 
subversion of the moral order, and the denial of God. The great target of the Revolution 
is, then, the Church, the Mystical Body of Christ, the infallible teacher of the Truth, the 
guardian of Natural Law, and, therefore, the ultimate foundation of temporal order itself. 

Accordingly, we must examine the relation between the Divine institution that the 
Revolution wants to destroy and the Counter-Revolution. 


The Revolution and the Counter-Revolution are extremely important episodes in 
the history of the Church, for they constitute the very drama of the apostasy and the 
conversion of the Christian West. Even so, they are mere episodes. 

The mission of the Church does not lie only in the West, nor is it bound by time to 
the length of the revolutionary process. Amid the storms through which she passes today, 
she could proudly and tranquilly say: “Alios ego vidi ventos; alias prospexi animo 
procellas” (“I have already seen other winds, I have already beheld other storms”) 61 The 
Church has fought in other lands, against adversaries from among other peoples, and she 
will undoubted continue to face problems and enemies quite different from those of today 
until the end of time. 

The Church's objective is to exercise her direct spiritual power and her indirect 
temporal power for the salvation of souls. The Revolution is an obstacle that arose to 
prevent the accomplishment of this mission. For the Church, the struggle against this 
specific obstacle (among so many others) is no more than a means limited to the 
dimensions of the obstacle - most important means, of course, but, nevertheless, only a 
means. Thus, even if the Revolution did not exist, the Church would still do everything 
she does for the salvation of souls. 

We might make the matter clearer if we compare the position of the Church in 
face of the Revolution and the Counter-Revolution with that of a nation at war. When 
Hannibal was at the gates of Rome, all the forces of the Republic had to be marshaled and 
directed against him. This was a vital reaction against a most powerful and nearly 
victorious foe. Did it make Rome a mere reaction to Hannibal? Could anyone believe 
such a thing? 

Cicero, Familiares, 12, 25, 5. 

- 76 - 

It would be just as absurd to imagine that the Church is only the 

In this regard, it should be made clear that the Counter-Revolution is not destined 
to save the Spouse of Christ. Supported as she is on the promise of her Founder, she does 
not need men to survive. On the contrary, it is the Church that gives life to the 
Counter-Revolution, which, without her, is neither feasible nor even conceivable. 

The Counter-Revolution wants to contribute to the salvation of the many souls 
threatened by the Revolution and to the prevention of the catastrophes that menace 
temporal society. To do this, it must rely on the Church and humbly serve her, instead of 
vainly imagining that it is saving her. 


If the Revolution does exist, if it is what it is, then the crushing of the Revolution 
is within the mission of the Church, it is in the interest of the salvation of souls, and it is 
of special importance for the greater glory of God. 


Considering the tenn Revolution in the sense employed herein, the words of this 
heading are the obvious conclusion to what we have said above. To state the contrary 
would be to say that the Church is failing in her mission. 


The primacy of the Church among counter-revolutionary forces is obvious if we 
consider the number of Catholics, their unity, and their influence in the world. But this 
legitimate consideration of natural resources has a very secondary importance. The real 
strength of the Church lies in her being the Mystical Body of Our Lord Jesus Christ. 


If the Counter-Revolution is the struggle to extinguish the Revolution and to build 
the new Christendom, resplendent with faith, humble with hierarchical spirit, and spotless 
in purity, clearly this will be achieved, above all, by a profound action in the hearts of 
men. This action is proper to the Church, which teaches Catholic doctrine and leads men 
to love and practice it. Therefore, the Church is the very soul of the Counter-Revolution. 


This is an evident proposition. If the Revolution is the opposite of the Church, it is 
impossible to hate the Revolution (considered in its entirety and not just in some isolated 
aspect) and to combat it without ipso facto having the ideal of exalting the Church. 


The foregoing serves to show that the action of the Counter-Revolution involves a 
reorganization of all temporal society. “There is a whole world to be rebuilt from its very 

- 77 - 


foundations,” said Pius XII at the sight of the ruins with which the Revolution had 
covered the whole earth. 

Now, while this task of a fundamental counter-revolutionary reorganization of 
temporal society must, on the one hand, be wholly inspired by the doctrine of the Church, 
it involves, on the other hand, innumerable concrete and practical aspects that are 
properly in the civil order. And in this respect, the Counter-Revolution goes beyond the 
ecclesiastical ambit, though always intimately bound to the Church in every matter that 
has to do with her Magisterium and indirect power. 


In so far as he is an apostle, the Catholic is a counter-revolutionary. But he can be 
one in different ways. 

A. The Implicit Counter-Revolutionary 

He may be one implicitly and, as it were, unconsciously. This is the case of a 
Sister of Charity at a hospital. Her direct action is aimed at the cure of bodies and, above 
all, the good of souls. She can perfonn this action without speaking of the Revolution and 
the Counter-Revolution. She may even live in such special conditions that she is unaware 
of the phenomenon Revolution and Counter-Revolution. Nevertheless, to the degree that 
she really benefits souls, she will be diminishing the influence of the Revolution upon 
them. This is implicitly waging Counter-Revolution. 

B. The Modernity of a Counter-Revolutionary Explicitness 

Given that our times are immersed in the phenomenon Revolution and 
Counter-Revolution, it seems to us a condition for wholesome modernity that it be deeply 
understood and faced up to perspicaciously and energetically as circumstances dictate. 

Thus, we believe it is most desirable that all present day apostolate, whenever it 
be the case, have an explicitly counter-revolutionary intention and tone. 

In other words, we believe that - regardless of the field in which he works - the 
truly modem apostle will greatly add to the effectiveness of his labors if he discerns the 
Revolution within his field and exerts a corresponding counter-revolutionary influence in 
all his actions. 

C. The Explicit Counter-Revolutionary 

No one may deny that it is licit for certain persons to take upon themselves the 
task of developing a specifically counter-revolutionary apostolate in Catholic and 
non-Catholic circles. This they will do by proclaiming the existence of the Revolution, 
describing its spirit, method, and doctrines, and urging everyone to counter-revolutionary 

62 Pius XII, exhortation to the faithful of Rome, February 10, 1952, Discorsi e radiomessagi, vol. 13, p. 

- 78 - 

In so doing, they will be putting their activities at the service of a specialized 
apostolate as natural and meritorious as (and certainly more profound than) the apostolate 
of those who specialize in the struggle against other enemies of the Church, such as 
spiritism and Protestantism. 

To influence the numerous Catholic and non-Catholic circles in order to alert 
souls against, say, the evils of Protestantism is undoubtedly legitimate, and necessary for 
an intelligent and efficacious anti-Protestant action. The Catholics who devote 
themselves to the apostolate of the Counter-Revolution will proceed in an analogous 

Possible excesses in this apostolate - which may happen as in any other - do not 
invalidate the principle we established. After all, “abusus non tollit usum (“abuse does 
not abolish use”). 

D. Counter-Revolutionary Action That Does Not Constitute an Apostolate 

Finally, there are counter-revolutionaries who do not practice an apostolate in the 
strict sense, for they devote themselves to the struggle in certain fields such as 
specifically partisan politics or economic undertakings to combat the Revolution. 
Undoubtedly, these activities are highly relevant and can only be looked upon with 


If we employ the expression Catholic Action in the legitimate sense that Pius XII 
gave it (that is, a group of associations that, under the direction of the Hierarchy, 
collaborate with its apostolate), then in our view, the Counter-Revolution in its religious 
and moral aspects is a most important part of the program of a soundly modem Catholic 

Naturally, counter-revolutionary action can be pursued by one individual working 
alone or by several working together in a private capacity. With due ecclesiastical 
approval, this action can even culminate in the formation of a religious association 
especially dedicated to fighting the Revolution. 

Obviously, counter-revolutionary action in the strictly partisan or economic 
terrain is not part of the goals of Catholic Action. 


May the Counter-Revolution accept the cooperation of non-Catholics? Are there 
counter-revolutionary Protestants, Moslems, and others? The answer must be carefully 
nuanced. There is no authentic Counter-Revolution outside the Church. But it is 
conceivable that certain Protestants or Moslems, for instance, are in a state of soul in 
which they begin to perceive all the wickedness of the Revolution and to take a stand 
against it. Such persons can be expected to form obstacles, at times even great ones, 
against the Revolution. If they respond to grace, they can become excellent Catholics 
and, therefore, efficient counter-revolutionaries. Until then, they at least oppose the 
Revolution to some degree and can even force it back. In the full and true sense of the 

63 See no. 5, above. 

- 79 - 

word, they are not counter-revolutionaries. But their cooperation may and even should be 
accepted, with the care that the directives of the Church demand. 

Catholics ought to be particularly mindful of the dangers inherent in 
interdenominational associations, as Saint Pius X wisely warned: 

Indeed, without mentioning other points, the dangers to which - because of 
associations of this sort - our people expose or certainly can expose both the 
integrity of their faith and the just obedience to the laws and precepts of the 
Catholic Church are incontestably grave. 64 

Among non-Catholics, our best apostolate should focus on those who have 
counter-revolutionary tendencies. 


Saint Pius X, encylical Singulari quadam, September 24, 1912, Bonne Presse, Paris, vol. 7, p. 275. 

Revolution and Counter-Revolution 
Twenty Years After 

Twenty Years After 

In 1976, the author was asked to write a preface to a new Italian edition of Revolution 
and Counter-Revolution. He deemed it better, instead, to present an analysis of the 
evolution of the revolutionary process in the nearly twenty years since the essay's first 
edition. He therefore added this third part, which was first published in 1977. In 1992, in 
the aftermath of the fall of the Iron Curtain, the author updated this analysis with some 
commentaries published herein. - Ed. 


The Revolution: A Process in Continual 
Transfor mat ion 

Since so much time - marked by so many events - has elapsed since the first 
edition of Revolution and Counter-Revolution, one could fittingly ask if there is anything 
to be added regarding the matters treated in the essay. The answer could only be yes, as 
the reader will see. 


Twenty Years After, the title of a novel by Alexandre Dumas - so appreciated by 
Brazilian adolescents until the moment now long past when profound psychological 
transfonnations destroyed the taste for that kind of literature - is brought to mind by an 
association of images as we begin these notes. 

We just looked back to 1959; 1976 is almost over. Therefore, we are approaching 
the end of the second decade of this book's circulation. Twenty years... 

In this period, the essay's editions have multiplied. 65 

It was not our intention to make Revolution and Counter-Revolution a mere 
study. We wrote it also with the intention of making it a bedside book for about one 
hundred young Brazilians who had asked us to orient and coordinate their efforts in view 
of the problems and duties they faced at the time. This initial handful - the seed of the 
future TFP-soon spread throughout Brazil, which is the size of a continent. Propitious 
circumstances favored, pari passu, the formation and development of analogous and 
autonomous organizations throughout South America. The same occurred later in the 
United States, Canada, Spain, and France. More recently, intellectual affinities and 
promising cordial relations began to link this extensive family of organizations to 
personalities and associations of other countries of Europe. In France, the Bureau 
Tradition, Famille, Propriete, 66 founded in 1973, has been fostering the resulting contacts 
and approximations as much as possible. 

These twenty years, then, were years of expansion. They were years of expansion, 
yes, but years of intense counter-revolutionary struggle as well. 

65 Besides two initial printings in Catolicismo, Revolution and Counter-Revolution , in book form, has had 
two editions in Portuguese, three editions in Italian (one in Turin, two in Piacenza), six in Spanish (one in 
Barcelona, one in Bilbao, one in Santiago, Chile, one in Colombia, and two in Buenos Aires), two in 
French (in Brazil and Canada), and two in English (in Fullerton, California, and in New Rochelle, New 
York). It has also been transcribed in full in the magazines Que Pasa? (Madrid) and Fiducia (Santiago, 
Chile). These editions total about 90,000 copies. - Ed. 

66 Now the Association Franfaise pour la Defense de la Tradition, de la Famille et de la Propriete. 

82 - 

Considerable results have been achieved in this way. As this is not the moment to 
enumerate them all, we limit ourselves to saying that, in each country where a TFP or a 
similar association exists, it has been continuously combating the Revolution, that is, 
more particularly, so-called Catholic leftism in the religious realm and communism in the 
temporal realm. In the genuine combat against communism, we include the battle against 
all modes of socialism, for these are merely preparatory stages or larval forms of 

communism. This combat has always been waged according to the principles, goals, and 


nonns of Part II of this study. 

The fruits thus obtained well show the accuracy of what is said in this work on the 
inseparable themes of Revolution and Counter-Revolution. 


At the same time that the editions and fruits of Revolution and 
Counter-Revolution were multiplying on six continents, 69 the world - impelled by the 
revolutionary process that has been dominating it for four centuries - underwent such 
rapid and profound changes that, as we launch this new edition, it is appropriate to ask, as 
we have already said, whether on account of these changes something should be rectified 
or added in regard to what we wrote in 1959. 

Revolution and Counter-Revolution is situated sometimes in the theoretical field 
and sometimes in a theoretic-practical field very close to pure theory. Thus, it should not 
surprise anyone if in our judgment no event has altered the study's content. 

Assuredly, many of the methods and styles of action used by the Brazilian TFP, 
which was being formed in 1959 - and by its sister organizations - were replaced or 
adapted to the new circumstances. Others were introduced. However, as all these 
methods and styles are situated in an inferior field that is effectual and practical, 
Revolution and Counter-Revolution does not address them. Accordingly, nothing in the 
text needs to be modified. 

All this notwithstanding, there would be much to add if we wished to relate 
Revolution and Counter-Revolution to the new horizons that history is opening. But this 
would not fit in a simple supplement. We do think, though, that a summary of what the 
Revolution did in these twenty years - a review of the world scene as transformed by it - 
would help the reader to easily and conveniently relate the study's contents to present 
reality. This we shall proceed to do. 

67 See the book Um homem, uma obra, uma gesta - Homenagem das TFPs a Plinio Correa de Oliveira 
(Sao Paulo: Edigoes de Amanha, 1989), which includes ample historical data on TFPs and TFP Bureaus in 
22 countries on six continents. - Ed. 

68 Regarding the fight against the more recent forms of socialism. Prof. Plinio Correa de Oliveria’s What 
Does Self-Managing Socialism Mean for Communism: A Barrier? Or a Bridgehead? Deserves special 
mention. It was widely published in 1982 (in 50 major Western newspapers and magazines, with a total of 
over 33 million copies). This publication prompted Friedrich A. Hayek, Noble Prize winner in economics, 
to write a letter of high praise. Also of great interest are the books Espaha, anestesisda sin percribilo, 
amordazada sin saberlo, extraviada sin quererlo: la obra del PSOE and Adperpetuam rei memoriam, 
published by the Spanish TFP in 1988 and 1991 respectively. - Ed. 

69 Revolution and Counter-Revolution has also significant circulation in Australia, South America, and the 
Philippines. - Ed. 

- 83 - 


The Apogee and Crisis of the Third 


As we have seen, 70 three great revolutions constituted the chief stages of the 
process to gradually demolish the Church and Christian civilization: in the sixteenth 
century, humanism, the Renaissance, and Protestantism (First Revolution); in the 
eighteenth century, the French Revolution (Second Revolution); and in the second decade 
of this century, Communism (Third Revolution). 

These three revolutions can only be understood as parts of an immense whole that 
is the Revolution. 

Since the Revolution is a process, it is obvious that, from 1917 to the present, the 
Third Revolution has continued its course. It is now at a true apogee. 

When we consider the territories and populations subject to communist regimes, 
we see that the Third Revolution holds sway over a world empire without precedent in 
history. This empire is a continuous cause of insecurity and disunion among the greatest 
noncommunist nations. Moreover, the leaders of the Third Revolution control the strings 
that move, throughout the noncommunist world, the openly communist parties and the 
immense network of cryptocommunists, paracommunists, and useful idiots infiltrated not 
only into the noncommunist, socialist, and other parties, but also into the churches, 71 
professional and cultural associations, banks, the press, television, radio, the movie 
industry, and the like. And as if this were not enough, the Third Revolution applies with 
devastating efficacy - as we shall subsequently explain - the tactics of psychological 
conquest. With these tactics, communism is succeeding in reducing immense segments of 
the noncommunist Western public opinion to a foolish apathy. Such tactics enable the 
Third Revolution to expect, in this terrain, yet more remarkable successes that are even 
more disconcerting to observers who analyze events from outside the Third Revolution. 

70 See introduction and Part I, Chapter 3, 5, A-D. 

71 We speak of infiltration of communism into the various churches. It is indispensable to register that this 
infiltration is a supreme danger to the world, specifically in so far as it is carried on in the Holy Roman 
Catholic and Apostolic Church. The reason for this is that she is not merely a species of the genus 
churches. She is the only living and true church of the living and true God, the only Mystical Spouse of 
Our Lord Jesus Christ. In relation to the other churches, she is not a greater and more brilliant diamond 
among smaller and less brilliant one: She is the only true diamond among “similars” made of glass. 



Crisis in the Third Revolution: An inevitable Fruit of the Marxist Utopias 

The international dimensions of the Third Revolution’s apogee was already 
notorious, as the text notes. With the passing of time, the general picture of this 
apogee became even clearer, whether on account of the geographical and 
populational expansion of communist domination, the worldwide diffusion of Red 
propaganda and the weight of the communist parties in the Western world, or the 
penetration of communist tendencies into national cultures. 

These factors - heightened by a global panic of the atomic threat that 
Soviet aggressiveness posed to all continents - led to a policy of almost 
universal softness and capitulation in relation to Moscow: the German and 
Vatican Ostpolitiken, the sweeping wind of unconditional pacifism, the 
proliferation of political slogans and formulas that prepared so many bourgeois to 
view the triumph of communism as inevitable in the near future. 

Have we not all lived under the psychological pressure of this leftist 
optimism, which was enigmatic as a sphinx for the indolent centrists and 
threatening as a leviathan for those - like the TFPs and followers of Revolution 
and Counter-Revolution in so many countries - who well discerned the 
“apocalypse” to which this was leading? 

How few then were those who perceived that this leviathan was afflicted 
by a worsening crisis it could not overcome since it was an inevitable fruit of 
Marxist utopias! 

This crisis now seems to have disintegrated the leviathan. But, as will be 
seen further on, this disintegration has spread an even more deadly climate of 
crisis throughout the world. 

The inertia - when not the overt and substantial collaboration - of so many 
“democratic” governments and crafty private economic powers of the West in face of 
communism (already so powerful) paints a dreadful global panorama. 

Under these conditions, should the course of the revolutionary process continue as 
it has heretofore, it is humanly inevitable that the general triumph of the Third Revolution 
will ultimately impose itself on the whole world. How soon? Many would be alarmed if; 
as a mere hypothesis, we were to suggest twenty years. To them, this period would seem 
surprisingly brief. In reality, who can guarantee that this outcome will not take place 
within ten years, five years, or even less? 

The proximity, indeed the eventual imminence, of this utter devastation is 
indubitably one of the notes that indicate the greatest change in the world conjuncture 
when we contrast the horizons of 1959 and 1976. 

- 85 - 

A. On the Road to Its Apogee, the Third Revolution Studiously Avoided Total and Useless 

Even though the mentors of the Third Revolution have the capacity to launch 
themselves at any moment in an adventure for the complete conquest of the world by a 
series of wars, political blows, economic crises, and bloody revolutions, clearly such an 
adventure presents considerable risks. The mentors of the Third Revolution will accept 
running these risks only if it seems indispensable to them. 

In effect, if continuous use of classic methods carried communism to the 
pinnacles of power without exposing the revolutionary process to risks not carefully 
circumscribed and calculated, it is understandable that those who guide the universal 
Revolution hope to attain total world domination without exposing their work to the risk 
of irreparable catastrophes, inherent to every great adventure. 

B. Adventure in This Revolution's Next Stages? 

The success of the usual methods of the Third Revolution is endangered by the 
rise of unfavorable psychological circumstances that have become strongly accentuated 
over the last twenty years. 

Will such circumstances compel communism to choose adventure henceforth? 


Perestroika and Glasnost: Dismantling the Third Revolution or 
Metamorphosing Communism? 

At the end of 1989, the highest directors of international communism 
decided the moment had finally arrived to initiate communism’s greatest political 

This maneuver would consist in demolishing the Iron Curtain and the 
Berlin Wall. Its effects would coincide with the implementation of the “liberalizing” 
programs of glasnost (1985) and perestroika (1986) so as to precipitate the 
apparent dismantling of the Third Revolution in the Soviet world. 

In turn, this dismantling would gain for its chief promoter and executor, 
Mikhail Gorbachev, the emphatic sympathy and unreserved confidence of 
Western governments and of numerous private economic powers of the West. 

From these, the Kremlin could expect a massive inflow of financial 
resources for its empty coffers. 

The ample fulfillment of this expectation enabled Gorbachev and crew to 
continue floating, tiller in hand, on a sea of misery, indolence, and inaction that 
the unhappy Russian populace, until recently subjected to complete state 
capitalism, continues to face with disconcerting passivity. This passivity is 
propitious to the generalization of moral apathy and chaos and perhaps to the 

- 86 - 

formation of an internal contentious crisis that could degenerate into a civil or 
world war. 72 

Such was the setting when the sensational and hazy events of August 
1991 broke out, with Gorbachev, Yeltsin, and others as protagonists, in this 
game that paved the way first for the transformation of the U.S.S.R. into a loose 
confederation of states and afterwards for its dissolution. 

There is talk of the prospective fall of Fidel Castro’s regime in Cuba and 
the possible invasion of Western Europe of hordes of famished people from the 
East and the Maghreb. The several attempts made by multitudes of needy 
Albanians to enter Italy could have been a heralding of this new “barbarian 

In the Iberian Peninsula, as in other parts of Europe, there are some who 
associate these hypotheses with the effects of the presence of multitudes of 
Mohammedans casually admitted in previous years at several points of the 
continent and with construction projects for a bridge over the strait of Gibraltar, 
which would facilitate further Moslem invasions of Europe. 

There would be a curious similarity of effects between the fall of the Berlin 
Wall and the building of this bridge: Both would open the European continent to 
invasions analogous to those Charlemagne victoriously repelled, namely, the 
barbarian or semi-barbarian hordes from the East and the Mohammedan hordes 
from regions south of the European continent. 

One would say that the pre-medieval scenario is repeated. 

Yet, something is missing; the ardor of springtime faith among the Catholic 
populations called to confront both impacts simultaneously. Above all, someone 
is lacking: Where can one find today a man on par with Charlemagne? 

Were we to imagine the development of these hypotheses in the West, the 
magnitude and drama of their consequences would certainly astound us - even 
though our overview does not encompass all the consequences being predicted 
by experts from different intellectual circles and by objective media. 

For example, there is a growing opposition between consumer countries 
and poor countries, that is, between rich industrialized nations and nations that 
are mere producers of raw materials. 

This opposition is expected to result in a world-wide clash between two 
sets of ideologies: one in favor of unlimited enrichment; the other, of “miserabilist: 

This eventual clash inevitably brings to mind the class struggle proclaimed 
by Marx. 

Therefore we ask: Will this struggle be a projection, on a world scale, of a 
clash analogous to the one Marx envisioned primarily as a socioeconomic 
phenomenon within nations, a struggle that will involve every nation according to 
its own characteristics? 

72 In February of 1990, the author released a manifesto titled “Communism and Anti-communism on the 
Threshold of the Last Millennium’s Last Decade.” An earnest questioning of communist leaders in both 
East and West regarding perestroika , it was published in 21 newspapers of 8 countries and had wide 
repercussions, especially in Italy. - Ed. 

- 87 - 

If this happens, will the struggle between the First and Third Worlds 
become a disguise by which a metamorphosed Marxism, shamed by its 
catastrophic socioeconomic failure, tries, with renewed chances of success, to 
attain the final victory, a victory that, so far, has eluded Gorbachev, who though 
certainly not the doctor is at least the bard and prestidigitator of perestroika ? 

Yes, of perestroika, which is undoubtedly a refinement of communism, as 
confessed by its author in his propagandistic essay Perestroika: New Thinking for 
Our Country and the World: 

“The aim of this reform is to ensure...the transition from an excessively 
centralized management system relaying on orders, to a democratic one, based 
on a combination of democratic centralism and self-management.” 73 

And what is this self-management if not “the supreme objective of the 
Soviet state,” as established in the Preamble to the Constitution of the former 


A. The Decline of Persuasive Power 

Let us examine the circumstances that may force communism to choose the path 
of adventure. 

The first is the decline of the persuasive power of communist proselytism. 

There was a time when explicit and categorical indoctrination was international 
communism's principal recruiting method. 

For reasons too extensive to enumerate, conditions have become considerably 
adverse to such indoctrination in almost all the West and in vast segments of public 
opinion. Communism's dialectics and its full and open doctrinal propaganda have visibly 
declined in persuasive power. 

This explains why in our days communist propaganda is carried out in an 
increasingly disguised, mild, and gradual way. 

Its disguise is effected either by spreading sparse and veiled Marxist principles 
through socialist literature, or by instilling in the culture of the establishment itself certain 
principles that, like seeds, later bear fruit, leading centrists to an inadvertent and gradual 
acceptance of the communist doctrine in its entirety. 

B. The Decline in the Capacity of Leadership 

This decrease in the Red creed's direct persuasive power over the multitudes - 
which the recourse to these indirect, slow, and laborious methods denotes - is 
accompanied by a correlative decline in communism’s leadership capacity. 

73 Mikhail Gorbachev, Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World (New York: Harper & 
Row, 1987), p. 34. 

Let us examine how these correlative phenomena are manifested and what their 
fruits are. 

- Hatred, Class Struggle, Revolution 

Essentially, the communist movement is and considers itself to be a revolution 
born of class hatred. Violence is the method most consistent with it. This is the direct and 
fulminating method, from which the mentors of communism expected the greatest results 
with the least risk in the shortest possible time. 

This method presupposes a leadership capacity in the communist parties. In the 
past, this capacity enabled them to create discontent, transfonn it into hatred, articulate 
this hatred in an immense conspiracy, and thus succeed, with the “atomic” force of this 
hatred's impetus, in destroying the present order and implanting communism. 

- The Decline in Guidance of Hatred and in Use of Violence 

But the capacity to guide hatred is also slipping from the hands of the 

We will not extend this writing by going into an explanation of the complex 
causes of this fact. We limit ourselves to observing that violence resulted in fewer and 
fewer advantages for the communists during these twenty years. To prove this, we need 
only recall the invariable failure of the guerrilla warfare and terrorism spread throughout 
Latin America. 

It is quite true that violence has been dragging virtually all of Africa toward 
communism. But this says very little about the tendencies of public opinion in the rest of 
the world. The primitivism of most of Africa's aboriginal populations places them in 
special and unequivocal conditions. The growth of violence there has been due not so 
much to ideological motives as to anti-colonialist resentments, which communist 
propaganda exploited with its customary astuteness. 

- The Fruit and Proof of This Decline: The Third Revolution Metamorphoses Into a 
Smiling Revolution 

The clearest proof that over the last twenty or thirty years the Third Revolution 
has been losing its capacity to create and direct the revolutionary hatred lies in its 
self-imposed metamorphosis. 

During the post-Stalinist thaw with the West, the Third Revolution donned a 
smiling mask, exchanged polemics for dialogue, pretended to be changing its mentality 
and attitude, and welcomed all sorts of collaboration with the adversaries it had tried to 
crush through violence. 

In the international sphere, the Revolution thus successively passed from the Cold 
War to peaceful coexistence, then to the “dropping of ideological barriers,” and finally to 
fra nk collaboration with the capitalist powers, labeled, in the language of publicity, 
“Ostpolitik” or “detente.” 

In the internal sphere of the various Western countries, the politique de la main 
tendue (policy of the extended hand), which had been a mere artifice for deceiving a 

- 89 - 

small minority of leftist Catholics during the Stalin era, became a true detente between 
communists and pro-capitalists. It was an ideal way for the Reds to initiate cordial 
relations and fraudulent approximations with all their adversaries, whether religious or 

Out of this came a series of “friendly” tactics: the fellow travelers, the legalistic 
“Eurocommunism” (affable, and cautious toward Moscow), the “historic compromise,” 
and the like. 

As we have said, these stratagems provide advantages for the Third Revolution 
today. But they are slow, gradual, and dependent on a myriad of variables for their 

At the height of its power, the Third Revolution ceased to threaten and attack and 
began to smile and request. It ceased advancing in military cadence, shod in cossack 
boots, in order to progress slowly at a discreet pace. It abandoned the straight path - the 
shortest and chose a zigzag path marked with uncertainty. 

What an enormous change in twenty years! 

C. Objection: The Communist Successes in Italy and France 

But, someone will object, the successes of these tactics in Italy and France do not 
pennit one to affirm that communism is retreating in the free world, or even that the 
smiling communism of today is progressing more slowly than the scowling communism 
of the Lenin and Stalin years. 

First of all, in answer to this, one must say that the general elections in Sweden, 
West Gennany, and Finland, as well as the regional elections and the present instability 
of the Labor Government in Great Britain, attest to the inappetence of the great masses 
for socialist “paradises,” communist violence, and so on. 74 There are expressive signs that 
the example of these countries has already begun to reverberate in those two great 
Catholic Latin nations of Western Europe, thus hindering the communist advance. 

But, in our opinion, it is necessary above all to question how authentically 
communist is the growing number of votes obtained by the Italian Communist party or 
the French Socialist party (of which we speak since the French Communist party is 
stagnant). Both parties are far from having benefited only from the votes of their own 

74 This vast anti-socialist saturation in Western Europe, although fundamentally a reinvigoration of the 
center and not of the right, is of indisputable importance in the fight between the Revolution and the 
Counter-Revolution. For, to the extent that European socialism senses it is losing its rank and file, its 
leaders will have to display a distancing form and even a wariness of communism. In turn, the centrist 
currents, in order and not to be taken for socialists by their by their own electorates, will have to manifest 
an even more accentuated anticommunist position. And the right wing of the centrist parties will have to 
declare itself to be even militantly anti-socialist. 

In other words, the leftist and centrist currents in favor of collaborating with communism will suffer 
what occurs to a train when the locomotive is suddenly braked. The car immediately behind it is hit with 
the shock and is pushed in a direction opposite the one it was traveling. In turn, this car transmits the shock 
to the second car with an analogous effect, and so on, down to the last car. 

Could this present accentuating of the anti-socialist allergy be the first manifestation of a profound 
phenomenon destined to durably impoverish the revolutionary process? Or is it mere ambiguous and 
passing spasm of common sense amid the contemporary chaos? What has occurred thus far does not yet 
provide grounds for an answer. 

90 - 

electorates. Certainly considerable Catholic support - whose real amplitude only history 
will one day reveal in its full extent - has created entirely exceptional illusions, 
weaknesses, apathies, and complicities around the Italian Communist party. The electoral 
projection of these shocking and artificial circumstances explains, in large measure, the 
growth in the number of people voting for the Communist party, many of whom are by 
no means communist voters. Nor should we forget the direct or indirect influence of 
certain Croesuses upon the voting. Their frankly collaborationist attitude toward 
communism allows electoral maneuvers from which the Third Revolution draws an 
obvious profit. Analogous observations can be made in regard to the French Socialist 


To grasp more clearly the scope of these immense changes in the communist 
panorama, it is necessary to analyze, as a whole, communism's great present-day hope, 
namely, revolutionary psychological warfare. 

As we have already said, international communism - though necessarily bom of 
hatred and turned by its own internal logic to the use of violence exercised by means of 
wars, revolutions, and assassinations - was compelled by great, profound changes in 
public opinion to dissimulate its rancor and to pretend it had desisted from these means. 

Now, if such desistance were sincere, international communism would have 
denied itself to the point of self-destruction. 

But this is far from being the case. Communism uses the smile only as a weapon 
of aggression and warfare. It does not eliminate violence but transfers it from the field of 
physical and palpable operations to the field of impalpable psychological actuations. Its 
objective: to gradually and invisibly obtain the victory in the interior of souls that it could 
not win through drastic and visible means, according to the classic methods, because of 
certain circumstances. 

Of course, this is not a question of carrying out a few sparse and sporadic 
operations in the realm of the spirit. On the contrary, it is a question of a true war of 
conquest - psychological, yes, but total - targeting the whole man and all men in all 


Revolutionary Psychological Warfare: The Cultural Revolution and the 
Revolution in the Tendencies 

With the Sorbonne student rebellion in May 1968 numerous socialist and 
Marxist authors generally came to recognize the need for a form of revolution 
that would prepare the way for political and socioeconomic changes by 
influencing everyday life, customs, mentalities, and ways of living. This modality 
of revolutionary psychological warfare is known as the cultural revolution. 

According to these authors, only this preponderantly psychological and 
tendential revolution could change the public’s mentality to the point that would 

permit implementing the egalitarian utopia. Without this mental change, no 
structural change could last. 

This concept of cultural revolution encompasses what the 1959 edition of 
Revolution and Counter-Revolution termed the “Revolution in the tendencies.” 75 

We insist on this concept of total revolutionary psychological warfare. 

In fact, psychological warfare targets the whole psyche of man. That is, it acts on 
him in the various powers of the soul and in every fiber of his mentality. 

It targets all men: partisans or sympathizers of the Third Revolution as well as 
neutrals and even adversaries. 

It uses any means. At each step it needs to have at its disposal a specific factor to 
lead each social group and even each man imperceptibly closer to communism, however 
slightly. And this is so in every area: in religious, political, social, and economic 
convictions; in cultural attitudes; in artistic preferences; and in the ways of being and 
acting in the family, in the workplace, and in society. 

A. The Two Great Goals of Revolutionary Psychological Warfare 

Given the Third Revolution's present difficulties in carrying out ideological 
recruitment, the most useful of its activities is aimed not at its friends and sympathizers, 
but at the neutrals and its adversaries: 

a. to deceive and slowly put the neutrals to sleep; 

b. to divide at every step, disarticulate, isolate, terrorize, defame, persecute, and 
block its adversaries. 

These are, in our view, the two great goals of revolutionary psychological 

In this way, the Third Revolution becomes capable of winning - not so much by 
increasing the number of its friends as by destroying its adversaries. 

Obviously, to carry on this warfare, communism mobilizes all the means of action 
it possesses in Western countries as a result of the apogee attained there by the Third 
Revolution's offensive. 

B. Total Revolutionary Psychological Warfare: A Result of the Third Revolution's Apogee and 
Current Problems 

Total revolutionary psychological warfare therefore results from a combination of 
the two contradictory factors previously described: on the one hand, communism’s peak 
of influence over almost all key points of the great machine that is Western society; on 
the other, its diminishing ability to persuade and lead the profound levels of Western 
public opinion. 

75 Part I, Chapter 5. 


It would be impossible to describe this psychological warfare without carefully 
examining its development in what is the very soul of the West, that is, Christianity, and 
more precisely the Catholic religion, which is Christianity in its absolute fullness and 
unique authenticity. 

A. The Second Vatican Council 

Within the perspective of Revolution and Counter-Revolution, the greatest 
success attained by the smiling post-Stalinist communism was the Second Vatican 
Council's enigmatic, disconcerting, incredible, and apocalyptically tragic silence about 

It was the desire of this Council to be pastoral and not dogmatic. And, in fact, it 
did not have a dogmatic scope. But its omission regarding communism might make it go 
down in history as the a-pastoral Council. 

We shall explain the special sense in which we make this statement. 

Imagine an immense flock languishing in poor, arid fields and being attacked on 
all sides by swarms of bees and wasps and birds of prey. The shepherds begin to irrigate 
the fields and drive away the swarms and birds. Can this activity be tenned pastoral? In 
theory, certainly. 

However, if at the same time the flock were under attack by packs of voracious 
wolves, many of them covered with sheepskins, and the pastors fought against the insects 
and birds without making any effort to unmask or drive away the wolves, could their 
work be considered pastoral, proper to good and faithful shepherds? 

In other words, did those in the Second Vatican Council who wished to scare 
away the lesser adversaries but gave free rein - by their silence - to the greater adversary 
act as true pastors? 

Using “aggiomate” tactics (about which the least that can be said is that they are 
contestable in theory and proving ruinous in practice), the Second Vatican Council tried 
to scare away, let us say, bees, wasps, and birds of prey. But its silence about 
communism left full liberty to the wolves. The work of this Council cannot be inscribed 
as effectively pastoral either in history or in the Book of Life. 

It is painful to say this. But, in this sense, the evidence singles out the Second 
Vatican Council as one of the greatest calamities, if not the greatest, in the history of the 
Church. From the Council on, the “smoke of Satan” penetrated the Church in 
unbelievable proportions. And this smoke is spreading day by day, with the terrible force 
of gases in expansion. To the scandal of uncountable souls, the Mystical Body of Christ 
entered a sinister process of self-destruction, as it were. 


Astonishing Calamities in the Church’s Post-Conciliar Phase 

76 Cf. sermon of Paul VI on June 29, 1972. 

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The historic declaration of Paul VI in the allocution Resistite fortes in fide, 
of June 29, 1972, is fundamental for a better understanding of the calamities in 
the post-Conciliar phase of the Church. We quote the Poliglotta Vaticana. 

Referring to the situation of the Church today, the Holy Father affirmed 
that he had the feeling the “the smoke of Satan has entered into the 
temple of God through some crack.” There is doubt, uncertainty, 
complexity, restlessness, dissatisfaction, confrontation. People no longer 
trust the Church; they trust the first secular profane prophet who speaks 
to us through some newspaper or social movement, running after him and 
asking him if he has the formula of true life. We do not realize that we are 
already owners and masters of it. Doubt has entered our consciences 
through windows that ought to be open to the light.... This state of 
uncertainty also reigns in the Church. It was thought that after the Council 
the history of the Church would enter a sunny day. It entered instead a 
cloudy, stormy, dark, skeptical, and uncertain day. We preach ecumenism 
and yet we ourselves are farther and farther apart. We seek to dig 
abysses instead of filling them. 

How did this happen? The Pope confided one of his opinions: An 
adverse power has intervened. His name is the devil, the mysterious 
being to which Saint Peter also alludes in his Epistle. 77 

The same Pontiff, in an allocution to the students of the Pontifical Lombard 
Seminary on December 7, 1968, had affirmed: 

The Church finds herself in an hour of disquiet, of self-criticism, one 
might even say of self-destruction. It is like an acute and complex 
interior upheaval, which no one expected after the Council. One 
though of a blossoming, a serene expansion of the mature 
concepts of the Council. The Church still has this aspect of 
blossoming. But since “bonum ex integra causa, malum ex 
quocumque defectu,” the aspect of sorrow has become most 
notable. The Church is also being wounded by those who are part 
of her. 78 

His Holiness John Paul II also painted a somber picture of the Church’s 

One must be realistic and acknowledge with a deep and pained sentiment 
that a great party of today’s Christians feel lost, confused, perplexed, and 
even disillusioned: ideas contradicting the revealed and unchanging Truth 
have been spread far and wide; outright heresies in the dogmatic and 
moral fields have been disseminated, creating doubt, confusion, and 
rebellion; even the liturgy has been altered. Immersed in intellectual and 
moral “relativism” and therefore in permissiveness, Christians are 
tempted by atheism, agnosticism, a vaguely moralistic illuminism, a 

77 Insegnamenti di Paolo VI, vol. 10, pp. 707-709. 

78 Ibid., vol. 6, p. 188. 

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sociological Christianity, without defined dogmas and without objective 
morality. 79 

In a similar vein, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, Prefect of the Congregation 
for the Doctrine for the Faith, later stated: 

Results since the Council seem to be in cruel contrast to the expectations 
of all, beginning with those of John XXIII and Paul VI....The Popes and 
the Council Fathers were expecting a new Catholic unity, and instead one 
has encountered a dissension that - to use the words of Paul VI - seems 
to have gone from self-criticism to self-destruction. A new enthusiasm 
was expected, but too often there has been boredom and 
discouragement instead. A new leap forward was expected, but instead 
we find ourselves facing a process of progressive decadence....It must be 
clearly stated that a real reform of the Church presupposes an 
unequivocal turning away from the erroneous paths that led to 
indisputably negative consequences. 80 

History narrates the innumerable dramas the Church has suffered in the twenty 
centuries of her existence: oppositions that germinated outside her and tried to destroy 
her from outside; malignancies that fonned within her, were cut off by her, and thereafter 
ferociously tried to destroy her from outside. 

When, however, has history witnessed an attempted demolition of the Church like 

the present one? No longer undertaken by an adversary, it was termed a “self-destruction” 


in a most lofty pronouncement having world-wide repercussion. 

From this resulted an immense debacle for the Church and what still remains of 
Christian civilization. The Ostpolitik of the Vatican, for example, and the massive 
infiltration of communism into Catholic circles are effects of all these calamities. And 
they constitute additional successes of the psychological offensive of the Third 
Revolution against the Church. 


The Vatican Ostpolitik 

On reading these lines about Ostpolitik, someone could ask if the 
enormous changes that took place in Russia resulted from an ingenious move by 
the ecclesiastical hierarchy. 

Perhaps the Vatican, on the basis of the best information, foresaw that 
communism, corroded by internal crises, would begin in its turn to self-destruct. 
And to encourage the world headquarters of materialistic atheism to this 

79 John Paul II, allocution to the religious and priests participating in the First Italian National Congress on 
Missions to the People for the 80s, February 6, 1981, L ’Obsservatore Romano , February 7, 1981. 

80 From Vittorio Messori, Vittorio Messori a colloquio con il cardinale Joseph Ratzinger—Rapporto sulla 
fede (Milan: Edizioni Paoline, 1985), pp. 27-28. 

81 Allocution of Paul VI to the Lombardy Seminary, December 7, 1968. 

- 95 - 

autodemolition, the Catholic Church, situated on the other extreme of the 
ideological spectrum, feigned her own destruction. Perhaps this is what led 
communism to markedly diminish its persecution of the Church. After all, if both 
were moribund, and arrangement would be understandable. In other words, it is 
to the flexibility of the Church that we should attribute the conditions for the 
flexibility of the communist world. 

It would be fitting to reply that if the members of the Sacred Hierarchy 
knew that indigence and ruin would force communism to self-destruct, they 
should have denounced the misery and convoked all the peoples of the West to 
prepare the way for rehabilitating Russia and the world as soon as communism 
effectively collapsed. 

They should not have remained silent, letting the phenomenon evolve 
without benefiting from Catholic influence and the generous and solicitous 
cooperation of Western governments, since only this denunciation could have 
prevented the Soviet collapse from reaching its present dead end, wherein 
everything is misery and imbroglio. 

In any case, it is false to say that the self-destruction of the Church has 
hastened the self-destruction of communism - unless there were a secret treaty 
between the two in this regard. 

But such a treaty - or suicidal pact - would lack any legitimacy and 
usefulness for the Catholic world, not to mention everything in this mere 
hypothesis of offense to the popes in whose pontificates this double euthanasia 
was supposedly arranged. 

B. The Church: Today’s Center of Conflict Between the Revolution and the Counter-Revolution 

In 1959, the year we wrote Revolution and the Counter-Revolution, the Church 
was considered the great spiritual force against the worldwide expansion of the 
communist sect. 

In 1976, innumerable ecclesiastics, including bishops, figure as accomplices by 
omission, as collaborators, and even as driving forces of the Third Revolution. 
Progressivism, installed almost everywhere, is converting the formerly verdant forest of 
the Catholic Church into wood that can easily be set afire by communism. 

In a word, the extent of this change is such that we do not hesitate to affirm that 
the center - the most sensitive and truly decisive point in the fight between the Revolution 
and the Counter-Revolution - has shifted from the temporal to the spiritual society. 

The Holy Church is now this center. In her, progressivists, cryptocommunists, and 


procommunists confront antiprogressivists and anticommunists. 

82 Since the 1930s, with the group that later founded the Brazilian TFP, we have been employing the best of 
our time and possibilities of action and combat in the battle leading up to the great battle inside the Church. 
Our first extensive undertaking in this struggle was the publication of the book Em Defesa da Agao 
Catolica (Sao Paulo: Editoria Ave Maria, 1943), denouncing the resurgence of modernist errors in Brazils’s 
Catholic Action movement. It is also fitting to mention our much more recent study A Igreja ante a 
escalada da ameaga communista—Apelo aos Bispos silenciosos (Sao Paulo: Editora Ver Cruz, 1976), pp. 


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C. Reactions Based on Revolution and Counter-Revolution 

Has the efficacy of Revolution and Counter-Revolution been annulled by these 
numerous changes? On the contrary. 

In 1968, the TFPs then existing in South America, inspired in particular by Part II 
of this essay (“The Counter-Revolution”), organized national petition drives addressed to 
Paul VI, requesting measures against leftist infiltration into the Catholic clergy and laity 
of South America. 

Altogether, 2,060,368 people in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay signed the 
petition during a 58-day period. 

To our knowledge, it is the only mass petition - on any subject - signed by the 
sons of four South American nations. And, as far as we know, it is the largest petition in 
the history of these four countries. 83 

The answer of Paul VI was not merely silence and inaction. It was - how it pains 
us to say it - a series of acts whose effect continues to give prestige and facility of action 
to many promoters of Catholic leftism today. 

At the sight of this rising tide of communist infiltration into the Holy Church, the 
TFPs and like organizations did not become discouraged. And in 1974 each of them 
published a declaration 84 expressing their inconformity with the Vatican Ostpolitik and 


their resolve “to resist to the face.” 

One of the declaration's passages, referring to Paul VI, expresses the document's 


On our knees, gazing with veneration at the person of His Holiness Pope Paul VI, 

we express all our fidelity to him. In this filial act we say to the Pastor of Pastors: 

“Our soul is Yours, our life is Yours. Order us to do whatever you wish. Only do 

not order us to cross our arms in face of the assailing Red wolf. To this our 

conscience is opposed.” 

Not stopping at these efforts, the TFPs and like organizations in their respective 
countries promoted during the course of 1976 nine editions of the Chilean TFP best¬ 
seller, The Church of Silence in Chile: The TFP Proclaims the Whole Truth , 86 

Today, after more than forty years, the struggle is at its height, permitting one to foresee developments 
of an amplitude and intensity difficult to measure. In this struggle we are gladdened by the presence in the 
ranks of the TFPs and like organizations of so many new brothers-in-ideal, in over twenty countries on six 
continents. It is legitimate also on the battlefield for the soldiers of the good to say to one another: “Quam 
bonum et quam jucundum habitare fratres in unum ” (“Behold how good it is and how pleasant where 
brethren dwell together in unity”) (Psalm 132:1). 

83 In 1990 the TFPs surpassed this record with the largest petition drive in history. They gathered 5,212,580 
signatures for the liberation of Lithuania, then under the Soviet yoke. 

84 Titled “The Vatican Policy of Distention Toward the Communist Governments - The Question for the 
TFP: To Take No Stand? Or to Resist?,” this declaration, a veritable manifesto, was published, beginning 
in April 1974, in 57 newspapers in 11 countries. - Ed. 

85 Gal. 2:11. 

86 This work - monumental for its documentation, its argumentation, and the theses it defends - had a truly 
epic forerunner even before the installation of communism in Chile, namely, Fabio Vidigal Xavier da 
Silveira's Frei: El Kerensky Chileno. It denounced the decisive collaboration of the Chilean Christian 
Democratic party and its leader Eduardo Frei, then president of the country, in paving the way for the 

- 97 - 

In almost all countries, the respective edition included a prologue describing 
numerous and impressive national events analogous to what had occurred in Chile. 

The response of the public to this great publicity effort can be termed a victory: 
56,000 copies were printed in South America alone, where, in the most populous 
countries, the total pressrun of a book of this nature, when successful, is usually 5,000 

In Spain, more than 1,000 secular and regular priests from all regions of the 
country signed an impressive petition giving the Sociedad Cultural Covadonga their 
firm support for the courageous prologue of the book's Spanish edition. 

D. The Usefulness of the Action of the TFPs and Like Organizations Inspired by Revolution and 

In this specific battlefield, what has been the practical effect of the 
counter-revolutionary activity of the TFPs, inspired by i? 

By denouncing the danger of communist infiltration to Catholic opinion, the TFPs 
have opened the eyes of Catholics to the snares of unfaithful pastors. Consequently, the 
latter are leading fewer and fewer sheep along the paths of perdition onto which they 
themselves have wandered, as even a summary observation of the facts leads one to 

This is not a victory in itself, but it is a precious and indispensable condition for 
one. The TFPs give thanks to Our Lady for being able, within the spirit and methods of 
the second part of Revolution and Counter-Revolution, to do their share in the great 
struggle in which other wholesome forces - one or another of great scope and capability 
for action - are presently engaged. 


The situation of the Third Revolution and the Counter-Revolution has been 
outlined herein on the basis of how they appear shortly before the twentieth anniversary 
of the publication of this book. 

On the one hand, the apogee of the Third Revolution makes a success of the 
Counter-Revolution in the near future more difficult than ever. 

On the other, the same anti-socialist allergy that presently constitutes a grave 
obstacle to the victory of communism creates medium-term conditions that are decidedly 
favorable for the Counter-Revolution. The various counter-revolutionary groups spread 
throughout the world have the noble historic responsibility of making good use of these 

The TFPs have strived to contribute their part to the common effort, having 
spread during the last twenty years across the Americas, with a new TFP in France, 
giving rise to a similar dynamic organization in the Iberian peninsula, and projecting its 

Marxist victory. Published in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Italy, and Venezuela, the book went 
through seventeen printings, with more than 100,000 copies. 

87 Today the Spanish TFP: Sociedad Espanola de Defensa de la Tradicion, Familia y Propiedad - TFP 

- 98 - 

name and contacts in other countries of the Old World with the strong desire of working 


with all the counter-revolutionary groups fighting there. 

Twenty years after the launching of Revolution and Counter-Revolution, the TFPs 
and similar organizations stand shoulder to shoulder with the front-line organizations in 
the counter-revolutionary struggle. 

88 There are now TFPs and like organizations in Argentina, Australia. Bolivia, Brazil. Canada, Colombia, 
Chile, Ecuador, France, Germany, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, the United States, 
Uruguay, and Venezuela. They have representation offices in Rome, Paris, Frankfurt, London, Edinburgh, 
San Jose de Costa Rica, Sydney, and Wellington (New Zealand). In addition, a dynamic group of TFP 
friends recently formed in the Philippines. 


The Aborning Fourth Revolution 

The panorama presented here would be incomplete were we to fail to mention an 
internal transformation in the Third Revolution. It is the Fourth Revolution that is being 
born of it. 

It is being bom, yes, in the manner of a matricidal refinement. When the Second 
Revolution was born, it refined, overcame, and dealt a mortal blow to the First 
Revolution. The same occurred when, by an analogous process, the Third Revolution 
sprang from the second. Everything indicates that the Third Revolution has now arrived 
at the moment, at once culminating and fatal, when it generates the Fourth Revolution 
and thus exposes itself to being killed by it. 

In the clash between the Third Revolution and the Counter-Revolution, will there 
be time for the process that generates the Fourth Revolution to develop entirely? Will the 
latter effectively open a new stage in the history of the Revolution? Or will it be simply 
an abortive phenomenon, which will rise up and disappear without having a major 
influence in the clash between the Third Revolution and the Counter-Revolution? The 
greater or lesser space to be reserved for the Fourth Revolution in these hurried and 
summary notes would depend on the answer to this question - an answer that only the 
future can give completely. 

Since what is uncertain should not be treated as if it had the importance of what is 
certain, we will devote a very limited space to what seems to be the Fourth Revolution. 


As is well known, neither Marx nor the generality of his most notorious followers 
(whether orthodox or heterodox) considered the dictatorship of the proletariat to be the 
final phase of the revolutionary process. This dictatorship is, according to them, nothing 
but the most refined, dynamic aspect of the universal Revolution. And, in the evolutionist 
mythology inherent to the thinking of Marx and his followers, just as evolution will 
develop to infinity over the centuries, so also the Revolution will be endless. From the 
First Revolution, two other revolutions have already been born. The third, in its turn, will 
generate another. And so on... 

It is impossible to predict within the Marxist perspective what the Twentieth or 
Fiftieth Revolution would be like. However, it is possible to predict what the Fourth 
Revolution will be like. This prediction has already been made by the Marxists 

89 See Part I, Chapter 6, 3. 

- 100 - 

This revolution will necessarily be the overthrow of the dictatorship of the 
proletariat as a result of a new crisis. Pressured by this crisis, the hypertrophic state will 
be victim of its own hypertrophy. And it will disappear, giving rise to a scientistic and 
cooperationist state of things in which - so the communists say - man will have attained a 
heretofore inconceivable degree of liberty, equality, and fraternity. 


How shall this come to pass? We cannot but wonder if the tribal society dreamed 
of by today's structuralist currents provides the answer to this question. Structuralism sees 
in tribal life an illusory synthesis between the height of individual liberty and of 
consentaneous collectivism, in which the latter ends up devouring liberty. In this 
collectivism, the various “I's” or the individual persons, with their intelligence, will, and 
sensibility, and consequently with their characteristic and conflictual ways of being, 
merge and dissolve in the collective personality of the tribe, which generates one thought, 
one will, and one style of being intensely common to all. 

Of course, the road to this tribal state of things must pass through the extinction of 
the old standards of individual reflection, volition, and sensibility. These will be 
gradually replaced by fonns of thought, deliberation, and sensibility that are increasingly 
collective. It is, therefore, principally in this field that the transformation must take place. 

In what manner? In tribes, the cohesion among the members is assured mainly by 
a way of thinking and feeling common to all, from which result common habits and a 
common will. Individual reason is reduced to almost nothing, in other words, to the first 
and most elementary movements that this atrophied state pennits. “Savage thought,” 90 the 
thought that does not think and is turned only to what is concrete - such is the price of the 
tribal collectivist fusion. It belongs to the witch doctor to maintain, on a mystical level, 
this collective psychic life by means of totemic cults charged with confused “messages” 
but rich in the ignes fatui or even fulgurations emanating from the mysterious world of 
transpsychology or parapsychology. By acquiring these “riches,” man would compensate 
for the atrophy of reason. 

Reason-fonnerly hypertrophied by free interpretation of the Scriptures, 
Cartesianism, and other causes, divinized by the French Revolution, used to the point of 
the most unabashed abuse in every communist school of thought - would now be 
atrophied and enslaved by transpsychological and parapsychological totemism. 

A. The Fourth Revolution and the Preternatural 

“Omnes dii gentium daemonia ” (“All of the gods of the gentiles are devils”), say 
the Scriptures. 91 In this structuralist perspective, in which magic is presented as a form of 
knowledge, to what degree may a Catholic perceive the deceitful flashes, the canticle (at 
once sinister and attractive, soothing and delirious, atheistic and fetishistically credulous) 
with which, from the bottom of the abysses where he lies eternally, the Prince of 
Darkness attracts those who have denied Jesus Christ and His Church? 

This is a question that theologians can and should discuss. We mean the real 
theologians, that is, the few who still believe in the existence of the devil and hell, 

90 Cf. Claude Levy-Strauss, La pensee sauvage (Paris: Plon, 1969). 

91 Psalm 95:5. 

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especially the few among these few who have the courage to face the scorn and 
persecution of the mass media and to speak out. 

B. Structuralisin and Pre-tribal Tendencies 

To the extent that one sees the structuralist movement as a more or less exact (but, 
in any event, precursory) figure of the Fourth Revolution, one must view certain 
phenomena generalized over the last decade or two as preparing and driving the 
structuralist impetus. 

Thus, the overthrow of the traditions of dress in the West, increasingly eroded by 
nudism, obviously tends toward the appearance and consolidation of habits that will 
tolerate, at most, the cincture of feathers worn by certain tribes, substituted, where the 
cold demands it, with coverings somewhat like those used by the Laplanders. 

The rapid disappearance of the rules of courtesy can only end up in the absolute 
simplicity (to use only this qualifier) of tribal manners. 

The growing dislike for anything that is reasoned, structured, and systematized, 
can only lead, in its last paroxysms, to the perpetual and fanciful vagabondage of jungle 
life, alternating, likewise, with the instinctive and almost mechanical perfonnance of 
some activities absolutely indispensable to life. 

The aversion to intellectual effort, notably to abstraction, theorization, and 
doctrinal thought, can only induce, ultimately, a hypertrophy of the senses and of the 
imagination, resulting in the “civilization of the image,” about which Paul VI felt 


duty-bound to warn mankind. 

Also symptomatic are the ever more frequent idyllic eulogies of a cultural 
revolution that will generate a postindustrial society, still ill-defined but whose first 
specimen would be - some say is - Chinese communism. 

C. An Unpretentious Contribution 

We know full well that panoramic views - always vast and summary - lend 
themselves to many objections. 

Necessarily abbreviated due to the constrictions of the present chapter, our 
overview is but an unpretentious contribution to the studious reflections of people gifted 
with that daring and unique finesse of observation and analysis which, in all epochs, 
enables some men to foresee tomorrow. 

D. The Opposition of the Banal 

Others, instead of using foresight, will simply do what banal and timid souls have 
been doing throughout the centuries. Smiling, they will tenn such transfonnations 
impossible. Why? Because they clash with their mental habits; these transfonnations 

92 “We well know that modem man, overwhelmed by speeches, gives signs of being increasingly tired of 
listening and, worse still, of being irresponsive to words. We are also aware of the opinions of numerous 
psychologists and sociologists who affirm that modem man has already transcended the civilization of the 
word - which has become practically inefficacious and useless - and lives today in the civilization of the 
image” (Apostolic exhortation Evangelii nuntiandi , December 8, 1975, Documentos Pontificios, 6th ed. 
[Petropolis: Vozes, 1984], no. 188, p.30). 

- 102 - 

violate common sense, and for banal men, history normally follows the path of common 
sense. So, in face of these perspectives, they will incredulously and optimistically smile, 
just as Leo X smiled about the trivial “quarrel of friars,” which was all he saw in the 
nascent First Revolution. Or they will smile like the “Fenelonian” Louis XVI smiled 
when he saw the first ferments of the Second Revolution in splendid palace salons, lulled 
at times by the silvery sound of the harpsichord, or glittering discreetly in bucolic 
ambiences and scenes like his wife's Hameau. His smile was no different from that of 
many high - and some of the highest - dignitaries of the Church and of Western temporal 
society before the manipulations of smiling post-Stalinist communism or the upheavals 
announcing the Fourth Revolution. 

If one day the Third or Fourth Revolution, aided by ecumenical progressivism in 
the spiritual realm, takes over the temporal life of humanity, it will be due more to the 
carelessness and collaboration of these smiling optimistic prophets of common sense than 
to all the fury of the revolutionary hosts and their propaganda. 


Opposition From the Prophets of Common Sense 

These are strange prophets indeed, since their prophecies invariably 
amount to affirmation that nothing will happen. 

Eventually their various forms of optimism conflicted so flagrantly with the 
post-1976 facts that, to retain them, their adepts adopted the fallacious and 
totally hypothetical hope that the recent events in Eastern Europe will lead to the 
definitive disappearance of communism and therefore of the revolutionary 
process it spearheaded until recently. 93 

E. Ecclesiastical Tribalism and Pentecostalism 

Obviously, it is not only the temporal realm that the Fourth Revolution wants to 
reduce to tribalism. It wants to do the same with the spiritual realm. How this is to be 
done can already be clearly seen in the currents of theologians and canonists who intend 
to transform the noble, bone-like rigidity of the ecclesiastical structure - as Our Lord 
Jesus Christ instituted it and twenty centuries of religious life molded it - into a 
cartilaginous, soft, and amorphous texture of dioceses and parishes without territories and 
of religious groups in which the firm canonical authority is gradually replaced by the 
ascendancy of Pentecostalist “prophets,” the counterparts of the structuralist-tribalist 
witch doctors. Eventually, these prophets will be indistinguishable from witch doctors. 
The same goes for the progressivist-Pentecostalist parish or diocese, which will take on 
the appearances of the cell-tribe of structuralism. 

93 Regarding this hope, see the commentaries added to Chapter 2 of this Part III. 

- 103 - 


The “Demonarchization” of the Ecclesiastical Authorities 

In this historical/conjectural perspective, certain modifications in 
themselves alien to this process could be seen as steps in a transition between 
the pre-Conciliar status quo and the extreme opposite indicated here. 

An example of this would be the trend toward a collegiality viewed as (1) 
the only acceptable means for exercising power inside the Church and (2) an 
expression of a “demonarchization” of ecclesiastical authority, whose different 
levels would become ipso facto much more conditioned by the levels immediately 
below them. 

All this taken to its last consequences could tend toward the stable and 
universal establishment of popular suffrage inside the Church - not that on 
occasion she did not use it to fill certain hierarchical offices. In keeping with the 
dream of the advocates of tribalism, it could eventually result in an indefensible 
dependence of the whole hierarchy on the laity, as supposedly the only voice of 
God. Of God? Or of some witch doctor, whether a Pentecostalist guru or a 
sorcerer, who feeds his “mystical revelation” to a tribalistic laity? Would it be by 
obeying this laity that the Church hierarchy would fulfill its mission of obeying the 
will of God Himself? 


When innumerable facts grouped in a reasonable way suggest hypotheses like this 
one on the beginning of the Fourth Revolution, what can the counter-revolutionary still 

In the light of Revolution and Counter-Revolution, it behooves him, first of all, to 
emphasize the preponderant role that the Revolution in the tendencies 94 has in the 
generative process of this Fourth Revolution and in the world resulting from it. He should 
prepare to fight, not only alerting men against this preponderance of the tendencies, 
which is becoming the rule today even though fundamentally subversive of good human 
order, but also using all legitimate and appropriate means in the tendential field to combat 
this same revolution in the tendencies. The counter-revolutionaty should also observe, 
analyze, and foresee the new steps of the process in order to erect as soon as possible 
every obstacle against the supreme form of tendential revolution and of revolutionary 
psychological warfare: the aborning Fourth Revolution. 

If the Fourth Revolution has time to develop before the Third Revolution attempts 
its big adventure, the fight against it might call for another chapter of Revolution and 
Counter-Revolution. Such a chapter, all by itself might take up as much space as that 
devoted to the three previous revolutions. Why? Because processes of decadence tend to 
complicate everything almost infinitely. This is why each phase of the Revolution is more 

See Part I, Chapter 5, 1-3. 

- 104 - 

complex than the preceding one and obliges the Counter-Revolution to make efforts that 
are likewise more detailed and complex. 


With these perspectives on the Revolution and the Counter-Revolution and on the 
future of the work that must be done in face of both, we end these considerations. 

Uncertain, like everyone, about tomorrow, we prayerfully raise our eyes to the 
lofty throne of Mary, Queen of the Universe, while addressing her in a paraphrase of the 
Psalmist's words to Our Lord: 

Ad te levavi oculos meos, qui habitas in coelis. Ecce sicut oculi servorum in 
manibus dominorum suorum, sicut oculi ancillae in manibus dominae suae; ita 
oculi nostri ad Dominam Matrem nostram donee misereatur nostri. (Unto thee 1 
lift up my eyes, unto thee, who dwellest in the heavens. See how the eyes of 
servants are fixed on the hands of their masters, the eyes of a handmaid on the 
hand of her mistress! So our eyes are fixed on Our Lady and Mother, waiting for 
her to have mercy on us.) 95 

Yes, we turn our eyes to Our Lady of Fatima, requesting of her the contrition that 
will obtain for us the great pardons, the strength to wage the great battles, and the 
abnegation to be detached in the great victories that will bring the establishing of her 
Reign. We desire these victories with our whole heart, even if to reach them, the Church 
and the human race must undergo the apocalyptic - but how just, regenerating, and 
merciful - chastisements she predicted in 1917 at the Cova da Iria. 

95 Cf. Psalm 122:1-2. 

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Having updated the first (1959) edition of Revolution and Counter-Revolution by 
the addition of the preceding pages, we wondered if the brief Conclusion to the original 
text and to subsequent editions should be replaced or at least modified. After rereading it 
carefully, we are convinced there is no reason to omit it or even alter it. 

We say today as we said then: In view of what is stated herein, the present-day 
scene is very clear for anyone who acknowledges the logic of the counter-revolutionary 
principles. We are in the extreme throes of a struggle between the Church and the 
Revolution, a struggle that would be mortal if one of the contenders were not immortal. 
Therefore, in concluding, it is right that we, sons of the Church and fighters in the battles 
of the Counter-Revolution, should filially consecrate this book to Our Lady. 

It was the Immaculate Virgin who crushed the head of the Serpent, the first, the 
major, the eternal revolutionary, the instigator and foremost upholder of this Revolution, 
as of any before or after it. Mary is, therefore, the Patroness of all those who fight against 
the Revolution. 

The universal and all-powerful mediation of the Mother of God is the 
counter-revolutionaries' greatest reason for hope. And, at Fatima, she already gave them 
the certainty of victory when she declared that, even after an eventual surge of 
communism throughout the world, “finally, my Immaculate Heart will triumph!” 

We beseech the Virgin, therefore, to accept this filial homage, a tribute of love 
and an expression of absolute confidence in her triumph. 

We would not wish to end this work without a tribute of filial devotion and 
unrestricted obedience to the “sweet Christ on earth,” the pillar and infallible foundation 
of the Truth, His Holiness Pope John XXIII. 

“Ubi Ecclesia ibi Christus, ubi Petrus ibi Ecclesia ” (“Where the Church is, there 
is Christ; where Peter is, there is the Church”). It is then to the Holy Father that we direct 
our love, our enthusiasm, our dedication. It is with these sentiments, which have 
animated all the pages of Catolicismo since its foundation, that we have ventured to 
publish this work. 

We have not the slightest doubt in our heart about any of the theses that constitute 
this work. Nevertheless, we subject them unrestrictedly to the judgment of the Vicar of 
Christ and are disposed to renounce immediately any one of them if it depart even 
slightly from the teaching of the Holy Church, our Mother, the Ark of Salvation, and the 
Gate of Heaven. 

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After reading the previous words, the reader will necessarily wonder where the 
revolutionary process stands today. Is the Third Revolution still alive? Or does the 
collapse of the Soviet empire pennit us to affirm that the Fourth Revolution is erupting in 
the deepest levels of the political reality of Eastern Europe, or even that it has won? 

We must make a distinction. Today, the currents of thought that advocate the 
implantation of the Fourth Revolution have spread - though in different forms - 
throughout the world and reveal nearly everywhere a marked tendency to increase in 

In this sense, the Fourth Revolution is in a crescendo that is promising to those 
who desire it and threatening to those who oppose it. However, it would be exaggerated 
to say that the present order of things in the former U.S.S.R. is already totally modeled 
according to the Fourth Revolution and that nothing of the Third Revolution remains 

The Fourth Revolution, although having also a political dimension, identifies 
itself as a cultural revolution. In other words, it broadly encompasses all aspects of 
human existence. Therefore, the political clashes that may occur among the nations that 
once formed the U.S.S.R. could strongly condition the Fourth Revolution, yet they will 
hardly dominate the events, the ensemble of human acts encompassed by the cultural 

But what about the public opinion of the fonner Soviet countries (many of them 
still ruled by old communists)? Has it nothing to tell us about this, since, according to 
Revolution and Counter-Revolution, it had such a great role in the previous revolutions? 

This question cannot be answered unless other questions are answered first. Is 
there truly a public opinion in these countries? Can it be induced to participate in a 
systematic revolutionary process? If not, what are the plans of the top national and 
international leaders of communism for orienting this public opinion? 

These questions are difficult to answer, as presently public opinion in the former 
Soviet world is evidently indifferent, amorphous, and immobilized by the weight of 
seventy years of total dictatorship. Under this tyranny, every individual feared to manifest 
his religious or political opinion in many circles, even to his closest relative or most 
intimate friend. A probable denunciation - veiled or open, true or false - could consign 
him to indefinite hard labor on the frozen expanses of Siberia. Nevertheless, these 
questions must be answered if we are to render a prognosis of the course of events in the 
erstwhile Soviet world. 

Moreover, the international media continues to publicize the eventual migration 
of famished semicivilized - ergo semibarbarian - hordes to the prosperous European 
countries living under the regime of Western consumerism. 

Starved not only of food but of ideas, what do these pitiable people understand of 
the free world, at once supercivilized and gangrenous? On meeting it, would they not 
clash with it? And what would result from this clash, both in an invaded Europe and, by 

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extension, in the old Soviet world? A self-managing, cooperationist, structuralist-tribalist 
revolution 96 or an immediate world of total anarchy, of chaos and horror, which we 
would not hesitate to call the Fifth Revolution? 

At the moment this edition goes to press, any answer to these questions would be 
manifestly premature. Not that they should not be asked now, for the future is so 
unpredictable that it might be too late to ask them tomorrow. Indeed, of what use are 
books, thinkers, or remnants of civilization in a tribal world beset by the hurricanes of the 
disordered human passions and the deliria of structuralist-tribalist “mysticism”? what a 
tragic situation, in which nobody would be anything in the empire of Nothingness. 

Gorbachev is still in Moscow, where he will remain, at least as long as he does 
not accept the highly preferential invitations quickly extended him by the prestigious 
universities of Harvard, Stanford, and Boston after his downfall, 97 or the regal hospitality 
offered by Juan Carlos I, King of Spain, in the renowned palace of Lanzarote, on the 
Canary Islands, 98 or the university chair to which he was invited by the famous College 
de France. 99 

Defeated in the East, the communist ex-leader's only difficulty seems to be 
choosing among the many flattering invitations he is receiving from the West. Thus far, 
he has decided to write a syndicated series of articles for newspapers in the capitalist 
world - a world whose highest levels continue to provide him fervent and inexplicable 
support - and to travel to the United States amid great publicity to raise funds for the 
Gorbachev Foundation. 

Thus, even though Gorbachev is overshadowed in his own country - and 
seriously questioned in the West - Western magnates endeavor in various ways to 
maintain the floodlights of a flattering publicity beamed on the man of perestroika, who 
made a point, throughout his whole political career, of showing that his reform is not 
communism's contrary but its refinement. 100 

As for the weak Soviet federation that was agonizing when Gorbachev was 
overthrown, it became a quasiphantasmal “Commonwealth of Independent States,” 
whose inter-member friction worries statesmen and political analysts. Several of these 
republics have nuclear weapons and the capability to launch them at a neighbor (or at the 
enemies of Islam, whose influence grows daily in the former Soviet world), causing great 
apprehension among those concerned for global balance. 

The effects of these eventual atomic aggressions could be multiple. Principal 
among them could be the exodus of populations fonnerly contained by the Iron Curtain. 
Driven by the rigors of bitter winters and by the dangers of immense catastrophes, they 
might feel redoubled impulses to “request” the hospitality of Western Europe, and of 
American nations. 

96 See Part III, Chapter 2, commentary “ Perestroika and Glasnost: Dismantling the Third Revolution or 
Metamorphosing Communism?” 

97 Cf. Folha de S. Paulo, December 21, 1991. 

98 Cf. O Estado de S. Paulo, January 11, 1992. 

99 Cf. Le Figaro, March 12, 1992. 

100 See Part III, Chapter 2, commentary - ” Perestroika and Glasnost : Dismantling the Third Revolution or 
Metamorphosing Communism?” 

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In Brazil, Lionel Brizola, Governor of the State of Rio de Janeiro, has already 
proposed (to the applause of the nation's minister of agriculture) attracting farmers from 
Eastern Europe through government land-refonn programs. 101 Argentine president Carlos 
Menem, in contacts with the European Economic Community, has said he is willing to 
have his country accept many thousands of these immigrants. 102 The head of the 
Colombian Foreign Office, Mrs. Nohemi Sanin, has stated that her country's government 
was studying the possibility of admitting technicians from the East. 103 This is how 
imminent the waves of invasion may be. 

And what of communism? What happened to it? Enthralled at the perspective of a 
long-lasting universal peace, or even an everlasting peace that would abolish the terrible 
specter of a global nuclear hecatomb, most of Western public opinion was gripped by the 
sensation that communism had died. 

The West's honeymoon with this supposed paradise of amity and peace is 
gradually losing its harmony, as evidenced by the above-mentioned threat of all sorts of 
aggressions thundering in the territories of the defunct U.S.S.R. Will the Western 
impression that communism has ended prove any more reliable? 

At first, the voices that questioned the authenticity of communism's demise were 
few, isolated, and poorly documented. 

Nevertheless, little by little, shadows began to appear on the horizon. It was noted 
that in countries of central Europe, the Balkans, or the former U.S.S.R. some of the new 
holders of power had been important figures in the local communist party. The move 
toward privatization in all these countries, with the exception of the old East Germany, is 
generally more apparent than real, proceeding at a snail's pace that reveals the lack of an 
entirely defined direction. 

So, did communism die in these countries? Or did it simply enter into a 
complicated metamorphosis? The doubts in this matter are growing just as the last 
echoes of the universal rejoicing at the supposed collapse of communism are discreetly 
fading away. 

The Western communist parties had withered in the sight of all at the crash of the 
first cave-ins of the U.S.S.R. 

But already today several of them are reorganizing under new names. Is the 
change of names a resurrection? A metamorphosis? I am inclined to opt for the second 
hypothesis. As for certainties, only the future can give them. 

This updating of the general scene in face of which the world is taking a position 
seemed indispensable for any attempt to impart a little light and order to a horizon in 
whose quadrants chaos is predominating. And what is the spontaneous path of chaos if 
not the unintelligible worsening of itself? 

Amid this chaos, only one thing will not fail, namely, the prayer transcribed a 
little earlier and which is in my heart and on my lips, just as it is in the heart of all who 
see and think as I do: 

101 Cf. Jornal do Tarde, Sao Paulo, December 27,1991. 

102 Cf. Ambito Financiero, Buenos Aires, February 19, 1992. 

103 Cf. El Tiempo, Bogota, February 22, 1992. 

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Unto thee I lift up my eyes, unto thee, who dwellest in the heavens. See 
how the eyes of servants are fixed on the hands of their masters, the eyes of a 
handmaid on the hand of her mistress! So our eyes are fixed on Our Lady and 
Mother, waiting for her to have mercy on us. 

Behold the affirmation of the unvarying confidence of the Catholic soul, which 
kneels but remains firm amid the general convulsion - firm with ah the firmness of those 
who, in the storm, and with a strength of soul even greater than it, continue to affirm from 
the bottom of their heart: “Credo in Unam, Sanctam, Catholicam et Apostolicam 
Ecclesiam ” that is, “I believe in the Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church, against 
which, as promised to Saint Peter, the gates of hell will never prevail.” 

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